Toyota Hi-Lux Petrol & Diesel 2WD & 4WD 2005 - 2011 Gregorys Owners Service & Repair Manual covers: Aftermarket Australian repair manual covering 2WD and 4WD, Petrol and Diesel versions of the seventh generation Toyota Hilux released in Australia in March 2005.
● Introductory Pages
About this Manual; Introduction to the Toyota Hi-Lux; Vehicle Identification Numbers; Buying Parts; Maintenance Techniques, Tools and Working Facilities; Booster Battery (jump) starting; Jacking and Towing; Automotive Chemicals and Lubricants; Conversion Factors; Safety First!; Troubleshooting
● Routine Maintenance
● 2.7 litre 4 Cylinder Petrol Engine
● 4.0 litre V6 Petrol Engine
● 3.0 litre 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine
● General Engine Overhaul Procedures
● Cooling, Heating and Air Conditioning
● Fuel and Exhaust Systems - Petrol Engines
● Fuel and Exhaust Systems - Diesel Engines
● Charging and Starting Systems
● Emissions & Engine Control Systems
● Manual Transmission
● Automatic Transmission
● Transfer Case
● Clutch and Driveline
● Suspension and Steering Systems
● Chassis Electrical System
● Wiring Diagrams
NOTE: Only maintenance, adjustment, minor repair procedures plus removal and installation are described for the Automatic Transmission.
Turbo-diesel, equally created because turbodiesel plus turbo diesel pertains with any diesel engine built with a turbocharger. Turbocharging is well-known inside contemporary auto plus truck diesel machines with provide high force outputs, lower emissions degrees, plus improved efficiency from a synonymous capability of engine. Turbo-diesels inside vehicles provide a high refinement degrees than their naturally aspirated counterparts.
A turbocharger, or turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device which increases an engine s efficiency plus energy by forcing additional air into the combustion room. This improvement over a naturally aspirated engine s output results considering the turbine could force more air, plus proportionately more gas, into the combustion room than atmospheric stress alone.
Turbochargers were initially termed as turbosuperchargers whenever all forced induction equipment were categorized because superchargers. Nowadays the expression "supercharger" is commonly used with just mechanically driven forced induction equipment. The key difference between a turbocharger along with a traditional supercharger is the fact that the latter is mechanically driven by the engine, usually from the belt associated with the crankshaft, while a turbocharger is driven with a turbine driven by the engine s exhaust fuel. Compared with a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers are better, however, less sensitive. Twincharger pertains with an engine with both a supercharger along with a turbocharger.
Turbochargers are popular about truck, auto, train, aircraft, plus construction equipment motors. These are generally most frequently chosen with Otto cycle plus Diesel cycle internal combustion machines. They have additionally been found worthwhile inside automotive gas cells.
The turbocharger was invented inside the early 20th century by Alfred Bchi, a Swiss engineer as well as the head of diesel engine analysis at Gebruder Sulzer engine production firm inside Winterthur. Bchi especially intended his device with be selected about diesel motors. His patent of 1905 noted the efficiency improvements a turbocharger may bring with diesel machines that inside 1922 had initially been developed for utilize inside road transportation.
At the time, metal plus bearing technologies wasn't sufficiently advanced with enable a useful turbocharger with be built. The initial useful turbodiesels were sea motors fitted with 2 German passenger liners - the Danzig as well as the Preussen inside 1923, every having 2 10-cylinder motors of 2,500 horsepower. By the late 1920s, many diesel engine builders were generating big turbodiesels for sea plus stationary utilize, including Sulzer Bros., MAN, Daimler-Benz, plus Paxman.
Turbocharger technologies was improved greatly by developments throughout World War II plus next development of the fuel turbine. It was today potential with utilize small turbochargers about small, higher-speed machines. Diesel locomotives with turbodiesels started appearing inside the late 1940s plus 1950s.
In 1951 MAN presented a turbocharged variation of their MK26 truck, though it was not place into mass manufacturing. Series manufacturing of turbocharged diesel pickups commenced inside 1954, whenever both MAN 750TL1 plus Volvo Titan Turbo were introduced with the markets. The building of the Interstate Highway System inside the USA from 1956 produced long-distance road transportation of goods more appealing. To continue with general traffic, more effective motors came inside improving need. Cummins, Detroit, plus CAT all had turbo-charging because an alternative by the late-1960s. In Europe, legislation was introduced inside Germany mandating a minimal power-to-weight ratio for trucks; by the late 1960s, a 38-tonne comprise had with have at minimum 304 hp. Many producers met these requirement with large-displacement all-natural aspiration motors, several with all the way of large-displacement or turbo-charging, when Scania plus Volvo where amidst those which just offered turbocharged pickups which met the demands. Turbo-charging wasn't preferred initially because the machines were perceived with be less reliable, yet the system claimed a decisive victory by the mid-1970s because the 1973 oil crisis improved gas bills. The last marketplace to find the absolute penetration of turbo diesels was Japan, where legislation about particle emissions effectively mandated all-natural aspiration machines till efficient particle filters became accessible.
Experiments with small turbodiesels of the size appropriate for a car were carried out inside the 1960s. The Rover Company built experimental 2.5 liter 4-cylinder turbodiesels inside 1963, however, didn't place the shape into creation. The initial turbodiesel manufacturing automobile was the Mercedes-Benz 300SD, introduced inside May 1978. It selected a Garrett AiResearch turbocharger, plus was yielded just for the United States. In Europe, the initially turbodiesel was the Peugeot 604 inside early 1979. Turbodiesel vehicles started with be generally built plus available inside Europe throughout the late 1980s plus early 1990s, a trend which has continued with the modern. In France, due with a taxes structure that gave turbodiesels a comparative benefit, sales shot up earlier, achieving 33,000 passenger auto sales inside 1983.
On the other hand with turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, stores, shafts, plus gears are normal techniques of powering a supercharger, placing a mechanical weight found on the engine. For instance, found on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger utilizes regarding 150 horsepower. Yet the pros outweigh the costs; for the 150 hp with drive the supercharger the engine generates an extra 400 horsepower, a web gain of 250 hp. This really is where the main drawback of the supercharger becomes apparent; the engine should withstand the internet force output of the engine and the force with drive the supercharger.
Another drawback of several superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency than turbochargers. Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of the compressor s ability with compress air without adding extra heat to this air. Even beneath best conditions, the compression task constantly results inside elevated output temperature; though, better compressors make less extra heat. Roots superchargers impart more heat with the air than turbochargers. So, for a provided amount plus stress of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, plus because a happen denser, containing more oxygen molecules, plus consequently more possible energy than the supercharged air. In useful application the disparity between your 2 is dramatic, with turbochargers usually producing 15% with 30% more force based only found on the variations inside adiabatic efficiency.
By comparison, a turbocharger refuses to put a direct mechanical weight found on the engine, though turbochargers spot exhaust back stress about machines, improving pumping losses. This really is better, considering whilst the improved back stress taxes the piston exhaust stroke, much of the vitality driving the turbine is offered by the still-expanding exhaust fuel which might otherwise be wasted because heat from the tailpipe. On the other hand to supercharging, the main downside of turbocharging is what exactly is called "lag" or "spool time". This really is the time between your need for an heighten inside energy as well as the turbocharger providing improved intake stress, plus therefore improved force.
Throttle lag happens considering turbochargers depend found on the buildup of exhaust fuel stress with drive the turbine. In varying output systems like vehicle motors, exhaust fuel stress at idle, low engine speeds, or low throttle is commonly insufficient with drive the turbine. Just whenever the engine reaches enough speed does the turbine section begin with spool up, or angle swiftly enough with provide intake stress above atmospheric stress.
A mixture of an exhaust-driven turbocharger plus an engine-driven supercharger may mitigate the weaknesses of both. This technique is known as twincharging.
In the case of Electro-Motive Diesel s two-stroke motors, the mechanically-assisted turbocharger is not particularly a twincharger, because the engine utilizes the mechanical assistance with charge air just at lower engine speeds plus business. When above notch # 5, the engine utilizes true turbocharging. This differs from a turbocharger which utilizes the compressor section of the turbo-compressor just throughout beginning plus, because a two-stroke motors cannot naturally aspirate, plus, according with SAE definitions, a two-stroke engine with a mechanically-assisted compressor throughout idle plus low throttle is considered naturally aspirated.
Improvements inside force, gas economy, plus Noise, Vibration, plus Harshness inside both small- plus large-capacity turbodiesels over the last decade have spurred their popular adoption inside certain markets, notably inside Europe where they create up over 50% of fresh vehicle registrations. Turbodiesels are considered more flexible for automotive uses than naturally aspirated diesels, that have sturdy low-speed torque outputs however shortage force at high speeds. Turbodiesels is crafted with have a more acceptable spread of both energy plus torque over their speed range or, when being built for commercial utilize, is crafted with enhance either torque or energy at a provided speed depending found on the actual utilize. Naturally aspirated diesels, virtually without exception, have a lower force output than a petrol engine of the same capability while the same time requiring stronger internal components like the pistons plus crankshaft with withstand the better stresses of the diesel engine s running cycle. These factors provide naturally aspirated diesels a bad power-to-weight ratio. Turbocharger units weigh especially small however, may provide immense energy, torque, plus efficiency improvements. Fitting a turbocharger could bring a diesel engine s power-to-weight ratio as much as the same level because an similar petrol device, creating turbodiesels desirable for automotive employ, where producers aim for similar energy outputs plus handling properties over their range, irrespective of the kind of force device selected.
A Mazda3 with a contemporary usual rail 1.6 liter turbodiesel engine with varying geometry turbocharger, intercooler, 16 valves, double overhead camshafts plus piezo controlled 7-stage direct injection.
Turbochargers are inside countless methods more suited with procedure inside diesel motors. The small speed range which Diesel machines function inside mean which the turbocharger has with change speed less, reducing turbo lag plus improving efficiency. Diesel motors never need dump valves. Perhaps many greatly, the diesel engine is immune with detonation considering the gas is not injected till when of combustion. So, the compression ratio refuses to need to be reduced, or additional anti-detonation measures taken, because will be needed for a turbocharged spark-ignition engine. The turbodiesel engine will additionally aid with all the amount of torque it can provide out. Commonly employed inside pickups, it assists boost the towing ability of the truck, and gas economy.
During the 1990s, turbodiesel motors were mostly chosen inside the United States for light pickups. An illustration is the Ford Power Stroke engine series, installed about Ford F-Series Super Duty pickup pickups, the E-series vans as well as the Excursion sport utility cars. In 1989, Dodge began creating light duty pickups with 5.9 liter turbo-diesel engine.
As need for diesel machines inside standard sedan plus station wagon vehicles inside the United States has been much lower than inside saloon plus property vehicles inside Europe, the development of small automotive turbodiesels has been led by European producers inside latest years. Diesel gas inside the USA had a greatly high amount of sulphur than the gas selected inside Europe, that meant which diesel-engined vehicles from European machines had with either be fitted with specifically developed gas plus emissions control program for the North American marketplace, or couldn't be available because marketplace.
After ultra low sulphur diesel was introduced inside the United States inside October 2006, automakers started to provide turbodiesel models that can take benefit of it with lower emissions. Manufacturers like Volkswagen, BMW, Audi, plus Mercedes-Benz have been releasing vehicles with 4 plus six-cylinder turbodiesels.
Availability of turbodiesel models improved inside the 2014 model year, because a limited more producers introduced passenger vehicles plus sport utility cars driven by turbodiesel motors. GM started marketing the 2014 Chevrolet Cruze Clean Turbo Diesel inside 2013. The Mazda6 fitted with all the SKYACTIV-D engine is obtainable in the late spring of 2014. The 2014 Jeep Grand Cherokee with all the 3.0L EcoDiesel V6 engine is accessible at the finish of 2013. Additionally, producers have began advertising vans plus light-duty pickups with turbodiesels again. The 2014 Ram 1500 is accessible with all the EcoDiesel engine inside March 2014. The 2015 Ford Transit van, with a 3.2L I-5 Power Stroke turbodiesel way, is obtainable in the summer of 2014. The next-generation Nissan Titan pickup truck, expected with be obtainable in 2014, may have a Cummins-sourced turbodiesel available
An Injection Pump is the device which pumps gas into the cylinders of the diesel engine. Traditionally, the injection pump is driven indirectly within the crankshaft by gears, stores or perhaps a toothed belt which moreover forces the camshaft. It rotates at half crankshaft speed inside a traditional four-stroke engine. Its timing is these which the gas is injected just fairly somewhat before top dead centre of which cylinder s compression stroke. It is moreover popular for the pump belt about gasoline motors with be driven straight within the camshaft. In certain systems injection pressures is because significant because 220 MPa.
Earlier diesel pumps employed an in-line design with a series of cam-operated injection cylinders inside a line, very like a miniature inline engine. The pistons have a continual stroke amount, plus injection amount is controlled by rotating the cylinders against a cut-off port which aligns with a helical slot inside the cylinder. Whenever all cylinders are rotated at when, they simultaneously fluctuate their injection amount with make almost force within the engine. Inline pumps nevertheless discover favour about big multi-cylinder machines like those about pickups, construction plant, static machines plus agricultural cars.
Distributor diesel injection pump
For utilize about vehicles plus light pickups, the rotary pump or distributor pump was developed. It utilizes a single injection cylinder driven from an axial cam plate, that injects into the individual gas lines through a rotary distribution valve. Later incarnations like the Bosch VE pump fluctuate the injection timing with crank speed with permit better energy at excellent crank speeds, plus smoother, more affordable running at slower revs. Many VE variants have a pressure-based program which enables the injection amount with heighten over general with let a turbocharger or supercharger prepared engine with develop more force below boost conditions.
Inline diesel metering pump
All injection pumps include the governor with cut gas provide when the crank speed endangers the engine - the thick moving components of diesel machines never tolerate overspeeding perfectly, plus catastrophic damage may happen when they are over-revved. Poorly maintained plus used motors may consume their lubrication oil by used out crankcase ventilation systems plus run away , causing improving engine speed till the engine destroys itself. This really is considering many diesel motors just control their speed by gas provide control plus don t have a throttle valve with control air consumption.
Common rail direct gas injection is a contemporary variant of direct gas injection program for petrol plus diesel machines.
On diesel motors, it attributes a high-pressure gas rail feeding individual solenoid valves, because opposed with low-pressure gas pump feeding device injectors. Third-generation popular rail diesels today feature piezoelectric injectors for improved precision, with gas pressures as much as 3,000 bar.
Solenoid or piezoelectric valves create potential fine electronic control over the gas injection time plus amount, as well as the high stress which the widespread rail technologies makes accessible offers greater gas atomisation. To lower engine sound, the engine s electronic control device will inject a tiny amount of diesel before the key injection event, therefore reducing its explosiveness plus vibration, and also optimising injection timing plus number for variations inside gas standard, cold beginning and so forth. Some advanced usual rail gas systems do because various because five injections per stroke.
Common rail motors need the especially brief with no heating-up time, depending about ambient temperature, plus provide lower engine sound plus emissions than elder systems.
Diesel machines have historically employed numerous types of gas injection. Two normal kinds include the device injection program as well as the distributor/inline pump systems. While these elder systems offered exact gas amount plus injection timing control, they were limited by many factors:
They were cam driven, plus injection stress was proportional with engine speed. This usually meant which the greatest injection stress might just be accomplished at the greatest engine speed as well as the maximum achievable injection stress reduced because engine speed reduced. This relationship is true with all pumps, even those utilized about well-known rail systems. With device or distributor systems, the injection stress is linked with the instant stress of the single pumping event without accumulator, and therefore the relationship is a bit more prominent plus troublesome.
They were limited inside the quantity plus timing of injection occasions which can be commanded throughout a single combustion event. While several injection occasions are potential with these elder systems, it is very more difficult plus costly with achieve.
For the typical distributor/inline program, the begin of injection happened at a pre-determined stress plus ended at a pre-determined stress. This characteristic resulted from "dummy" injectors inside the cylinder head that opened plus shut at pressures determined by the spring preload used with the plunger inside the injector. When the stress inside the injector reached a pre-determined level, the plunger might lift plus injection might commence.
In well-known rail systems, a high-pressure pump shops a reservoir of gas at significant stress --- as much as plus above 2,000 bars. The expression "well-known rail" pertains with the truth which the gas injectors are provided with a popular gas rail that is nothing over a stress accumulator where the gas is stored at excellent stress. This accumulator supplies numerous gas injectors with high-pressure gas. This simplifies the cause of the high-pressure pump because it just must keep the commanded stress at a target. The gas injectors are usually ECU-controlled. Whenever the gas injectors are electrically triggered, a hydraulic valve is mechanically or hydraulically opened plus gas is sprayed into the cylinders at the desired stress. Because the gas stress vitality is stored remotely as well as the injectors are electrically actuated, the injection stress at the begin plus end of injection is fairly close to the stress inside the accumulator, therefore producing a square injection rate. If the accumulator, pump plus plumbing are sized correctly, the injection stress plus rate is the same for every of the several injection occasions.
The TDI engine utilizes direct injection, where a gas injector sprays atomised gas straight into the primary combustion room of every cylinder, instead of the pre-combustion room common inside elder diesels that selected indirect injection. The engine equally utilizes forced induction through a turbocharger with strengthen the amount of air that is capable with enter the engine cylinders, plus many TDI motors equally feature an intercooler with lower the temperature of the charged , or compressed air within the turbo, therefore improving the amount of gas which is injected plus combusted. These, in combination, enable for better engine efficiency, plus consequently better force outputs, when additionally decreasing emissions plus providing more torque than the non-turbo plus non-direct injection petrol engined counterpart from VAG.
Similar technologies has been selected by alternative automotive businesses, however "TDI" particularly pertains with these Volkswagen Group motors. Naturally aspirated direct-injection diesel motors created by Volkswagen Group employ the Suction Diesel Injection label.
Because these motors are fairly low displacement plus very compact they have a low surface location. The resulting reduced surface region of the direct injection diesel engine reduces heat losses, plus therefore increases engine efficiency, at the cost of somewhat improved combustion sound. A direct injection engine is equally simpler with commence whenever cold, as a result of better placing plus use of glowplugs.
Direct injection turbodiesel machines are frequent winners of numerous prizes inside the International Engine of the Year Awards. In 1999 inside certain, six from twelve categories were claimed by direct injection engines: 3 were Volkswagen, 2 were BMW, plus 1 Audi. Notably which year, the Volkswagen Group 1.2 TDI 3L beat the Toyota Prius with win "Best Fuel Economy" inside its class. The TDI engine has claimed "Green Car of the Year award" inside the years 2009 plus 2010 whipping different numerous electrical vehicles.
Turbocharger lag is the time needed with change force output inside reaction with a throttle change, observed because a hesitation or slowed throttle reaction whenever accelerating than a naturally aspirated engine. This really is due with the time required for the exhaust program plus turbocharger to create the necessary boost. Inertia, friction, plus compressor weight are the main contributors with turbocharger lag. Superchargers never suffer this condition, considering the turbine is eliminated due with the compressor being straight driven by the engine.
Turbocharger applications is classified into those which need changes inside output energy plus those which never. While significant with differing levels, turbocharger lag is many difficult inside applications which need fast changes inside energy output. Engine designs lessen lag inside a quantity of ways:
Lowering the rotational inertia of the turbocharger by utilizing lower radius components plus ceramic plus alternative lighter materials
Changing the turbine s aspect ratio
Increasing upper-deck air stress plus improving wastegate response
Reducing bearing frictional losses, e.g., utilizing a foil bearing instead of a traditional oil bearing
Utilizing variable-nozzle or twin-scroll turbochargers
Decreasing the amount of the upper-deck piping
With numerous turbochargers sequentially or inside parallel
Utilizing an antilag system
Utilizing a turbocharger spool valve with heighten exhaust fuel flow speed with the turbine
Mechanical pumps are slowly being phased out inside purchase with comply with global emissions directives, plus with grow performance plus economy. From the 1990s an intermediate stage between full electronic control were pumps which selected electronic control units with control a few of the functions of the rotary pump nevertheless were nevertheless mechanically timed plus driven by the engine. The initial generation 4 plus five cylinder VW/Audi TDI machines pioneered these pumps before flipping with Unit Injectors. These pumps were selected with supply greater injection control plus refinement for vehicle diesel motors because they changed from indirect injection with more effective however, inherently less processed direct injection motors inside the 1990s. The ECUs can even differ the damping of hydraulic engine mounts with help refinement. BOSCH VP30 VP37 VP44 are illustration pumps. Because then there has been a common change with well-known rail diesel systems plus electronic device direct injection systems. These let for high pressures with be developed, as well as for much better control of injection volumes, plus numerous injection stages compared with mechanical systems.
The standard procedure is described because a sequence of 4 separate phases: the filling stage, the spill stage, the injection stage, as well as the stress reduction stage.
A low stress gas delivery pump supplies filtered diesel gas into the cylinder head gas ducts, plus into every injector gas port of continual stroke pump plunger injector, that is overhead camshaft operated.
The continual stroke pump element found on the technique up draws gas within the provide duct into the room, plus because extended because electrical solenoid valve remains de-energized gas line is open.
The pump element is found on the technique down, plus because extended because solenoid valve remains de-energized the gas line is open plus gas flows inside from into the return duct.
The pump element remains found on the method down, the solenoid is today energized plus gas line is today shut. The gas cannot pass into return duct, plus is today compressed by the plunger till stress surpasses certain "opening" stress, as well as the injector nozzle needle lifts, permitting gas with be injected into the combustion room.
Pressure reduction phase
The plunger continues to be about its technique down, the engine ECU de-energizes the solenoid whenever necessary number of gas is delivered, the gas valve opens, gas will flow back to return duct, causing stress drop, which causes the injector nozzle needle with closed, therefore no more gas is injected.
The begin of a injection is controlled by the solenoid closing point, as well as the injected gas amount is determined by the closing time, that is the size of time the solenoid remains closed. The solenoid procedure is totally controlled by the engine ECU.
The Toyota Hilux is a series of compact pickup pickups yielded plus advertised by the Japanese maker Toyota. Many nations selected the Hilux name for the whole existence of the series in North America, the Hilux name was retired inside 1976 inside prefer of Truck, Pickup Truck, or Compact Truck. In North America the prevalent choice package, the SR5, was colloquially utilized because a model name for the truck, despite that the possibility package was furthermore chosen about additional Toyota models like the Corolla. In 1984, the Trekker, the camper adaptation of the Hilux, was renamed because the 4Runner inside Australia plus North America, plus because the Hilux Surf inside Japan. In 1995, Toyota introduced a fresh pickup model, the Tacoma inside North America, discontinuing the Hilux/Pickup there. The 4Runner is today a full SUV, as well as the more latest models never resemble the Tacoma.
As of 2014, the Toyota Hilux is accessible internationally, except Japan, United States, Canada, North Korea, plus South Korea.
After the February 2004 introduction of the 2005 model year Tacoma, the 7th generation Hilux was unveiled about March 2, 2005 inside Buenos Aires, Argentina. Market release later started inside April 2005. The Tacoma was based found on the 4Runner chassis, when the Hilux rides about an revamped adaptation of the ladder frame found about past versions. The Hilux improved inside size plus then became categorized because a mid-size choose up. The Tacoma had a fresh four.0 L V6 engine which produces 176 kW plus 361 NÃ�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â·m of torque. Its shape was extremely synonymous with the 4Runner.
Hilux models available inside Australian, Middle Eastern, plus Asian markets are built plus assembled inside Thailand, where the car is known as the Hilux Vigo, or Vigo. For the European plus South African markets the Hilux is made inside Durban, South Africa. As of December 2009, it really is the greatest marketing car inside South Africa. Those available inside South America are prepared inside Argentina, because with all the past generation Hilux. But, the motors are integrated Japan rather of Argentina. In Asia, the Hilux Vigo platform was utilized because the basis for Toyota's IMV system that spawned the Innova MPV plus Fortuner SUV/PPV.
In Malaysia, the Hilux is just obtainable in 2.5 L with all the choice of single cab or double cab. The double cab model has an automatic transmission variant. It utilizes the same engine because additional Asian nations, yet motors employed inside Malaysia vary inside their maximum output of 75 kW at 3600 rpm plus maximum torque of 260 NÃ�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â·m at 1600Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â¢Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¢Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¬Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½2400 rpm.
In Singapore, the Hilux is accessible because a single cab with all the 2.5 L engine or perhaps a double cab with all the 3.0 L engine. Notable fleet visitors include private taxi providers, for who the double cab model has extra weight room versatility, as well as the Singapore Police Force plus Pakistan Police, that uses it because a patrol car.
The Hilux is integrated Guangqi Toyota Automobile inside Guangzhou for the Chinese marketplace. The models for China is four.0 L with all the way of single cab or double cab. It utilizes the same engine because Australia, yet motors chosen inside China has been tuned as much as the maximum output of 246 kW at 6500 rpm plus maximum torque of 405 NÃ�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â·m at 4000 rpm, plus is mated with a 5-speed automatic transmission. China is truly the only Asian nation with receive the V6 engine.
A Hilux entered inside the 2012 Dakar Rally by the Imperial Toyota team of South Africa managed with capture 3rd spot despite having small modifications within the manufacturing model plus being up against factory supported groups.
Diesel machines are equally yielded with 2 greatly different injection places. "Direct" plus "Indirect". Indirect injected machines put the injector inside a pre-combustion room inside the head that due with thermal losses usually need the "glow plug" with begin plus high compression ratio. Usually inside the range of 21:1 with 23:1 ratio. Direct injected motors employ a mostly donut shaped combustion room void found on the top of the piston. Thermal efficiency losses are greatly lower inside DI motors that facilitates a much lower compression ratio commonly between 14:1 plus 20:1 yet many DI machines are closer with 17:1. The direct injected procedure is more internally violent and therefore needs thoughtful shape, plus more robust construction. The lower compression ratio equally creates challenges for emissions due with partial burn. Turbocharging is especially suited with DI machines because the low compression ratio facilitates meaningful forced induction, as well as the heighten inside airflow enables capturing more gas efficiency not just from more complete combustion, and from reducing parasitic efficiency losses whenever correctly operated, by widening both energy plus efficiency curves. The violent combustion procedure of direct injection moreover creates more sound, nevertheless contemporary designs utilizing "split shot" injectors or synonymous multi shot processes have dramatically amended this matter however, firing a little charge of gas before the principal delivery that pre-charges the combustion room for a less abrupt plus inside many situations somewhat cleaner burn.
A important component of all diesel motors is a mechanical or electronic governor that controls the idling speed plus maximum speed of the engine by controlling the rate of gas delivery. Unlike Otto-cycle motors, incoming air is not throttled along with a diesel engine without a governor cannot have a stable idling speed plus can overspeed, causing its destruction. Mechanically governed gas injection systems are driven by the engine's gear train. These systems utilize a mixture of springs plus weights with control gas delivery relative with both weight plus speed. Modern electronically controlled diesel motors control gas delivery by employ of a electronic control component or electronic control device. The ECM/ECU receives an engine speed signal, plus additional working parameters like consumption manifold stress plus gas temperature, from a sensor plus controls the amount of gas and commence of injection timing from actuators with maximize energy plus efficiency plus minimise emissions. Controlling the timing of the begin of injection of gas into the cylinder is a key with reducing emissions, plus maximizing gas economy, of the engine. The timing is calculated inside levels of crank angle of the piston before top dead centre. As an example, when the ECM/ECU initiates gas injection whenever the piston is 10Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â° before TDC, the begin of injection, or timing, is mentioned with be 10Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â° BTDC. Optimal timing depends the engine shape in addition to its speed plus weight, plus is commonly 4Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â° BTDC inside 1,350-6,000 HP, web, "medium speed" locomotive, sea plus stationary diesel motors.
Advancing the begin of injection results inside high in-cylinder stress plus temperature, plus high efficiency, and results inside improved engine sound due with quicker cylinder stress rise plus improved oxides of nitrogen formation due with high combustion temperatures. Delaying begin of injection causes incomplete combustion, reduced gas efficiency plus an heighten inside exhaust smoke, containing a considerable amount of particulate matter plus unburned hydrocarbons.
2005 2.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4
2005 2.5 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, 76 kW Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â¢Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¢Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¬Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½ 107 kW
2005 2.7 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC I4, 119 kW
2005 3.0 L diesel D-4D DOHC I4, Turbodiesel, commonrail 16-valve direct injection, 121 kW. This adaptation is prepared at Toyota's center inside ZÃ�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â¡rate, Argentina.
2005 four.0 L gasoline VVT-i DOHC V6, 170 kW Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â¢Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¢Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¬Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½ 176 kW
2008 four.0 L Supercharged DOHC V6 225 kW
The 1TR-FE is a 1,998 cc I4 gasoline engine. It qualities DOHC, 16 valves plus VVT-i . Its energy is 136 hp at 5,600 rpm, plus 18.6 kg m of torque at 4,000 rpm with redline of 6000 rpm.
The 1TR-FPE is an LPG variation of the 1TR-FE engine. Its energy is 85 kW at 4,800 rpm plus torque is 189 NÃ�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â·m at 3,600 rpm. The compression ratio is 10.6:1. Bore plus stroke is 86.0 mm x 86.0 mm.
Toyota Comfort Taxi
Toyota Dyna Medium-Duty Truck
The 2TR-FE is a 2693 cc I4 gasoline engine. It qualities DOHC, 16 valves plus VVT-i . Its energy is 159 hp at 5,200 rpm, plus 180 lbfÃ�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â·ft of torque at 3,800 rpm with redline of 5500 rpm. The bore plus stroke are 95 mm Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½ 95 mm.
Toyota Hilux Surf
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado
Even though inside the general context, the expression "four-wheel drive" generally pertains with an ability a car can have, it's additionally chosen with designate the whole car itself. In Australia, cars without noticeable off-road abilities are usually called All-Wheel Drives or SUVs, when those with off-road abilities are called "four-wheel drives". This term is occasionally furthermore employed inside North America, somewhat interchangeably for SUVs plus pickup pickups plus is often mistakenly used with two-wheel-drive variants of these cars.
The expression 4Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½4 was used with describe North American military four-wheel-drive cars because early because the 1940s, with all the initially quantity indicating the total amount of wheels about a car as well as the next indicating the quantity of driven wheels. Today, the expression 4Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½4 is usual inside North America, plus is usually employed whenever advertising a fresh or utilized car, plus is occasionally used because badging about a car loaded with four-wheel drive. Similarly, 4Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½2 will be appropriate for many two-wheel-drive cars, plus is usually selected with describe them because a two-wheel drive. In Australia the expression is usually selected with refer with a ute which sits high about its suspension. This really is with avoid the confusion which the car may be a 4Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½4 considering it appears otherwise suited with off-road applications.
Large American pickups with double wheels found on the back axles plus 2 driven axles are officially designated because 4Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½4s, despite having six driven wheels, considering the "dual" wheels behave because a single wheel for traction plus category reasons, plus are not individually driven. True 6Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½6 cars with 3 driven axles like the well-known M35 2Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â½ lot cargo truck chosen by the U.S. Army has 3 axles, all them driven. This car is a true 6Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½6, because is the Pinzgauer, that is favored with protection forces about the world.
Another associated expression is 4-wheeler. This usually pertains with all-terrain cars with 4 wheels, plus refuses to indicate the quantity of driven wheels; a "four-wheeler" can have two- or four-wheel drive.
Axles are an key component of many useful wheeled cars. In a live-axle suspension program, the axles serve with transfer driving torque with the wheel, and also with keep the position of the wheels relative with every alternative plus with the car body. The axles in this program should equally bear the fat of the car and any cargo. A non-driving axle, including the front beam axle inside thick duty pickups plus several 2-wheel drive light pickups plus vans, might do not have shaft, plus serves just because a suspension plus steering component. Conversely, numerous front wheel drive vehicles have a strong back beam axle.
In alternative kinds of suspension systems, the axles serve just with transfer driving torque with the wheels; the position plus angle of the wheel hubs is an independent function of the suspension program. This really is typical of the independent suspension found about many new vehicles plus SUV's, plus found on the front of numerous light pickups. These systems nonetheless have a differential, nevertheless it won't have connected axle housing tubes. It can be connected with the car frame or body, or key inside a transaxle. The axle shafts then transfer driving torque with the wheels. Like a full flying axle program, the drive shafts inside a front wheel drive independent suspension program never help any car fat.
A timing belt, timing chain or cam belt is a element of a internal combustion engine which synchronizes the rotation of the crankshaft as well as the camshaft thus which the engine's valves open plus close at the right instances throughout every cylinder's consumption plus exhaust strokes. In an interference engine the timing belt or chain is additionally important with preventing the piston from striking the valves. A timing belt is a belt which commonly attributes teeth found on the inside surface, when a timing chain is a roller chain.
Many contemporary manufacturing car motors use the timing belt or chain with synchronize crankshaft plus camshaft rotation; several motors rather use gears with straight drive the camshafts. The utilize of the timing belt or chain rather of direct gear drive allows engine designers with put the camshaft further within the crankshaft, plus inside machines with numerous camshafts a timing belt or chain moreover allows the camshafts with be located further from every additional. Timing stores were prevalent about creation vehicles by the 1970s plus 1980s, whenever timing belts became the norm, yet timing stores have enjoyed a resurgence inside latest years. Timing stores are more durable than timing belts Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â¢Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¢Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¬Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½ though neither is because durable because direct gear drive Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â¢Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¢Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¬Ã�ï¿½Ã¯Â¿Â½Ã�Â¯Ã�Â¿Ã�Â½ nonetheless, timing belts are lighter, cheaper, plus work more quietly.
In the internal combustion engine application the timing belt or chain links the crankshaft with the camshaft, which control the starting plus closing of the engine's valves. A four-stroke engine needs which the valves open plus close when each additional revolution of the crankshaft. The timing belt does this. It has teeth with turn the camshaft synchronised with all the crankshaft, plus is especially tailored for a specific engine. In several engine designs the timing belt could furthermore be employed with drive additional engine components like water pump plus oil pump.
Gear or chain systems are moreover employed with connect the crankshaft with the camshaft at the correct timing. But, gears plus shafts constrain the relative place of the crankshaft plus camshafts. Even where the crankshaft plus camshaft are fairly close together, because inside pushrod machines, many engine designers employ a brief chain drive instead of a direct gear drive. This really is considering gear forces experience frequent torque reversal because the cam profiles "kick back" from the drive within the crank, leading with excessive sound plus wear. Fibre gears, with more resilience, are preferred with steel gears where direct drive has with be employed.
A belt or chain enables more flexibility inside the relative places of the crankshaft plus camshafts.
While stores plus gears can be more durable, rubber composite belts are quieter inside their procedure, are cheaper plus better, by dint of being lighter, whenever compared with a gear or chain program. Also, timing belts never need lubrication, that is imperative with a timing chain or gears. A timing belt is a certain application of the synchronous belt selected with transfer rotational energy synchronously.
Timing belts are usually covered by metal or polymer timing belt covers that need treatment for inspection or substitution. Engine producers suggest substitution at particular intervals. The producer can furthermore suggest the substitution of additional components, including water pump, whenever the timing belt is changed considering the extra expense with substitute water pump is negligible compared with the expense of accessing the timing belt. In an interference engine, or 1 whose valves extend into the path of the piston, failure of the timing belt invariably results inside costly plus, inside certain situations, irreparable engine damage, because certain valves is held open whenever they cannot be and therefore is struck by the pistons.
Indicators which the timing chain could should be changed include a rattling sound within the front of the engine.
Timing belts should be changed at the manufacturer's recommended distance and/or time periods. Failure with substitute the belt may cause complete breakdown or catastrophic engine failure, specifically inside interference machines. The owner's manual upkeep schedule is the source of timing belt substitution intervals, usually each 60,000 with 100,000 miles. It is well-known with substitute the timing belt tensioner simultaneously because the belt is changed.
The routine failure methods of timing belts are either stripped teeth or delamination plus unraveling of the fiber cores. Breakage of the belt, due to the nature of the significant tensile materials, is unusual. Correct belt tension is important - too loose as well as the belt may whip, too tight plus it usually whine plus place extra stress found on the bearings of the cogs. In either case belt lifetime is dramatically shortened. Aside within the belt itself, moreover popular is a failure of the tensioner, and/or the different gear plus idler bearings, causing the belt with derail.
In countless contemporary vehicles the gas pump is normally electrical plus positioned inside the gas tank. The pump creates positive stress inside the gas lines, pushing the gasoline with the engine. The high gasoline stress raises the boiling point. Placing the pump inside the tank puts the component smallest probably with handle gasoline vapor effectively farthest within the engine, submersed inside cool fluid. Another benefit with placing the pump inside the tank is the fact that it's less probably with begin a fire. Though electric components will spark plus ignite gas vapors, fluid gas won't explode plus consequently submerging the pump inside the tank is regarded as the safest places with place it. In most vehicles, the gas pump delivers a continual flow of gasoline with the engine; gas not utilized is returned with the tank. This further reduces the opportunity of the gas boiling, because it is not kept close with the hot engine for too lengthy.
The ignition switch refuses to carry the energy with the gas pump; rather, it activates a relay that will handle the high active weight. It is widespread for the gas pump relay with become oxidized plus stop functioning; this might be more widespread than the actual gas pump failing. Modern machines use solid-state control that enables the gas stress with be controlled through pulse-width modulation of the pump voltage. This increases the existence of the pump, enables a small plus lighter device with be employed, plus reduces electric weight.
Cars with electronic gas injection have an electronic control device plus this can be programmed with protection logic which usually closed the electrical gas pump off, whether or not the engine is running. In the event of the collision this may avoid gas leaking from any ruptured gas line. Additionally, vehicles will have an inertia switch which is "tripped" inside the event of a impact, or perhaps a roll-over valve which usually closed off the gas pump just in case the auto rolls over.
Many ECUs might additionally be programmed with closed off the gas pump when they identify low or zero oil stress, for example when the engine has suffered a terminal failure.
The gas sending device assembly can be a mixture of the electrical gas pump, the filter, the strainer, as well as the electronic device utilized with measure the amount of gas inside the tank through a float connected with a sensor that sends information with the dash-mounted gas gauge. The gas pump alone is a comparatively inexpensive element. But a technician at a garage would have a choice with install the whole device assembly.