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Volkswagen VW Transporter 1600 1968 1979 Haynes Service Repair Manual

The Volkswagen Type 2, acknowledged officially because the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, because the Bus or Camper, is a panel van introduced inside 1950 by the German automaker Volkswagen because its 2nd automobile model. After - plus initially deriving from Volkswagen's initial model, the Type 1 - it was provided the factory designation Type 2.

In 1968, Volkswagen introduced a brand-new car, the Volkswagen Type 4. The model 411, plus later the model 412, available new qualities with the Volkswagen lineup.

While the Type 4 was discontinued inside 1974 whenever sales dropped, its engine became the force plant for Volkswagen Type 2s yielded from 1972 with 1979: it continued inside modified shape inside the later Vanagon that was air-cooled from 1980 till mid-1983.

The engine which superseded the Type 4 engine inside late 1983 retained Volkswagen Type 1 architecture, yet showcased water-cooled cylinder heads plus cylinder jackets. The wasserboxer, Volkswagen terminology for a water-cooled, opposed-cylinder was subsequently discontinued inside 1992 with all the introduction of the Eurovan.

The Type 4 engine was moreover employed found on the Volkswagen adaptation of the Porsche 914. Volkswagen versions initially came with an 80 horsepower fuel-injected 1.7-litre flat-4 engine based found on the Volkswagen air-cooled engine. In Europe, the four-cylinder vehicles were available because Volkswagen-Porsches, at Volkswagen dealerships.

Porsche discontinued the 914/6 variant inside 1972 following manufacturing of 3,351 units; its region inside the lineup was filled with a variant driven with a hot 95 metric horsepower 2.0-litre fuel-injected adaptation of Volkswagen's Type 4 engine inside 1973. For 1974, the 1.7-litre engine was changed with a 76 metric horsepower 1.8-litre, as well as the fresh Bosch L-Jetronic gas injection program was put into American units to aid with emissions control. 914 creation ended inside 1976. The 2.0-litre engine continued with be selected inside the Porsche 912E, that offered an entry-level model till the Porsche 924 was introduced.

For the Volkswagen Type 2, 1972's many prominent change became a bigger engine compartment to match the greater 1.7- with 2.0-litre machines within the Volkswagen Type 4, along with a redesigned back end that eliminated the removable back apron. The air inlets were equally enlarged to support the improved cooling air requires of the heavier motors.

This all-new, bigger engine is commonly called the Type 4 engine because opposed with the past Type 1 engine initially introduced inside the Type 1 Beetle. This engine was called "Type 4" considering it was initially tailored for the Type 4 cars. There is not a "Type 2 engine" or "Type 3 engine", considering those cars didn't feature unique engine designs whenever introduced. They employed the "Type 1" engine within the Beetle with minor modifications like back mount provisions plus different cooling shroud plans, though the Type 3 did introduce gas injection found on the "Type 1" engine.

During the 1970s, inside Brazil, Volkswagen produced accessible the 1700 cc engine for the standard manufacturing automobile SP-2. The 1700 cc engine was identical with the 1600 cc adaptation, however, with enlarged cylinder bores.

Up till 2001, Beetle motors were additionally utilized with run many of the ski lifts at the Thredbo ski resort inside New South Wales, Australia, plus were maintained with a high quality by Volkswagen mechanics.


Additionally inside Australia, inside remote opal mines, Volkswagen motors were modified with air compressors for jack hammers, etc. They utilized 2 cylinders about 1 side because a engine, plus modified the head found on the different side with provide a flow of compressed air. The opal fields are quite dry plus hot, thus an air-cooled compressor has a benefit over liquid-cooled. Starting inside 1987, Dunn-Right Incorporated of Anderson, South Carolina has prepared a kit to do the conversion with compressor.

In the Type 2, the Volkswagen Type 4 engine was a choice from 1972. This engine was standard inside models destined for the US plus Canada. Just with all the Type 4 engine did an automatic transmission become accessible for the very first time inside 1973. Both motors displaced 1.7 litres, rated at 66 metric horsepower with all the guide transmission, plus 62 metric horsepower with all the automatic. The Type 4 engine was enlarged with 1.8 litres plus 68 metric horsepower inside 1974, plus again with 2.0 litres plus 70 metric horsepower inside 1976. As with all Transporter machines, the focus inside development wasn't about motive energy, however about low-end torque. The Type 4 motors were considerably more robust plus durable than the Type 1 machines, especially inside Transporter service.


As among the forerunners of the contemporary cargo plus passenger vans, the Type 2 gave rise with forward control competitors inside the United States inside the 1960s, including the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A100, as well as the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the latter adopting the Type 2's rear-engine configuration. European competition included the 1960s FF design Renault Estafette as well as the FR design Ford Transit.

Like the Beetle, the van has received many nicknames worldwide, including the "microbus", "minibus", plus, due to its recognition throughout the counterculture movement of the 1960s, "Hippie van".

Brazil contained the last factory inside the globe which yielded the T2. Production inside Brazil ceased about December 31, 2013, due with the introduction of more stringent protection laws inside the nation. This marks the finish of a era with all the rear-engine Volkswagens produced, that initially originated inside 1935 with their Type 1 prototypes.
The concept for the Type 2 is credited with Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. Pon visited Wolfsburg inside 1946, intending with buy Type 1s for import with the Netherlands, where he saw an improvised parts-mover plus realized anything better was potential utilizing the stock Type 1 pan. He initially sketched the van inside a doodle dated April 23, 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg plus placing the driver at the front. Production might need to wait, nevertheless, because the factory was at capability producing the Type 1.

Whenever ability freed up, a prototype recognized internally because the Type 29 was yielded inside a brief 3 months. The stock Type 1 pan proven with be too weak thus the prototype employed a ladder chassis with device body construction. Coincidentally the wheelbase was the same because the Type 1's. Engineers reused the reduction gear within the Type 81, permitting the 1.5 lot van with utilize a 25 hp flat 4 engine.

Although the aerodynamics of the initial prototypes were bad, technicians utilized the wind tunnel at the Technical University of Braunschweig with optimize the shape. Easy changes including splitting the windshield plus roofline into a "vee" assisted the manufacturing Type 2 achieve Cd=0.44, exceeding the Type 1's Cd=0.48. Volkswagen's brand-new chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff approved the van for creation about 19 May 1949 as well as the initially creation model, today designated Type 2, rolled off the assembly line with debut 12 November. Just 2 models were offered: the Kombi, as well as the Commercial. The Microbus was added inside May 1950, joined by the Deluxe Microbus inside June 1951. In all 9,541 Type 2s were yielded inside their initial year of creation.

An ambulance model was added inside December 1951 that repositioned the gas tank inside front of the transaxle, place the spare tire behind the front seat, plus added a "tailgate"-style back door. These attributes became standard found on the Type 2 from 1955 with 1967. 11,805 Type 2s were integrated the 1951 model year. These were joined with a single-cab pickup inside August 1952, plus it changed the smallest of the Type 2s till all were seriously modified inside 1968.

Unlike additional back engine Volkswagens, that evolved continually over time however, not saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not merely evolved, yet was completely revised periodically with variations retrospectively called versions "T1" with "T5". However just decades T1 with T3 is enjoyed because straight connected with the Beetle.

The Type 2, together with the 1947 Citroën H Van, are amidst the initial 'forward control' vans inside that the driver was located above the front roadwheels. They began a trend inside Europe, where the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, plus 1960 Commer FC additionally selected the idea. In the United States, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van plus Greenbrier passenger van went thus far because with copy the Type 2's rear-engine design, utilizing the Corvair's horizontally opposed, air-cooled engine for force. Except for the Greenbrier plus many 1950s–70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 stayed distinctive inside being rear-engined. This had been a drawback for the early "barndoor" Panel Vans, that couldn't conveniently be loaded within the back considering the engine cover intruded about inside room, however commonly advantageous inside traction plus inside sound.
The Volkswagen Samba, inside the United States sometimes known because Sunroof Deluxe, was the many luxurious variation of the Volkswagen Transporter T1. Volkswagen began producing Samba's inside 1951. In the sixties this variation became common because a hippie bus.

Originally Volkswagen Vans were categorized based on the quantity of windows they had. This model had 23 windows including 8 panoramic windows inside the roof. To distinguish it within the general 23 window Volkswagen van the name Samba was coined.

Instead of the sliding door at the side the Samba had 2 pivot doorways. Additionally the Samba had a cloth sunroof. At that time Volkswagen advertised with all the idea of utilizing the Samba with create tourist trips from the Alps.

Samba's were standard painted inside 2 hues. Usually, the upper element was colored white. The 2 colored sections were split with a decorative strip. Further the bus had a thus called "hat": at the front of the van the rooftop was really a little longer than the auto itself with block the sunlight for the driver. The windows had chrome tables as well as the van had a more comprehensive dashboard than the general T1.

Whenever Volkswagen began producing the successor of the T1 the business equally stopped producing the Samba's thus there are no Samba's inside later versions of the Volkswagen Transporter.
In late 1967, the 2nd generation of the Volkswagen Type 2 was introduced. It was integrated Germany till 1979. In Mexico, the Volkswagen Kombi plus Panel were yielded from 1970 with 1994. Models before 1971 are usually called the T2a, when models following 1972 are called the T2b.
1978 Volkswagen Transporter Pickup
1973–1980 Volkswagen Kombi van
T2 utilized because an ambulance inside Brazil

This second-generation Type 2 lost its distinctive split front windshield, plus was somewhat greater plus considerably heavier than its predecessor. Its prevalent nicknames are Breadloaf plus Bay-window, or Loaf plus Bay for brief. At 1.6 L plus 35 kW DIN, the engine was additionally somewhat heavier. The new model equally did away with all the swing axle back suspension plus transfer boxes earlier chosen with raise ride height. Instead, half-shaft axles fitted with continual velocity joints raised ride height without the wild changes inside camber of the Beetle-based swing axle suspension. The up-to-date Bus transaxle is normally popular by off-road racers utilizing air-cooled Volkswagen components.

The T2b was introduced through steady change over 3 years. The initially models showcased rounded bumpers incorporating a step for employ whenever the door was open, front doorways which opened with 90° within the body, no lip found on the front guards, specific engine hatches, plus crescent air intakes inside the D-pillars. The 1971 Type 2 showcased a new, 1.6 L engine with double consumption ports about every cylinder head plus was DIN-rated at 37 kW. An significant change came with all the introduction of front disk brakes plus unique roadwheels with brake ventilation holes plus flatter hubcaps. Up till 1972, front indicators are set low found on the nose instead of significant about either side of the fresh air grille – offering rise with their being nicknamed "Lower Lights". 1972's many prominent change became a bigger engine compartment to suit the heavier 1.7- with 2.0-litre motors within the Volkswagen Type 4, along with a redesigned back end that eliminated the removable back apron plus introduced the bigger late tail lights. The air inlets were moreover enlarged to support the improved cooling air requirements of the greater machines.

In 1971 the 1600cc Type 1 engine because employed inside the Beetle, was supplemented with all the 1700cc Type 4 engine – because it was initially crafted for the Type 4 models. European vans kept the possibility of upright enthusiast Type 1 1600 engine nevertheless the 1700 Type 4 became standard for US spec models.
Pre-facelift plus facelifted Volkswagen Kombi vans

In the Type 2, the Type 4 engine was an alternative for the 1972 model year forward. This engine was standard inside models destined for the US plus Canada. Just with all the Type 4 engine did an automatic transmission become accessible for the very first time inside the 1973 model year. Both motors displaced 1.7 L, DIN-rated at 49 kW with all the guide transmission plus 46 kW with all the automatic. The Type 4 engine was enlarged with 1.8 L plus 50 kW DIN for the 1974 model year plus again with 2.0 L plus 52 kW DIN for the 1976 model year. The 1978 2.0 L today showcased hydraulic valve lifters, eliminating the requirement with periodically change the valve clearances because about earlier models. The 1975 plus later U.S. model years received Bosch L-Jetronic electronic gas injection because standard equipment; 1978 was the initially year for electronic ignition, using the hall impact sensor plus digital controller, eliminating maintenance-requiring contact-breaker points. As with all Transporter motors, the focus inside development wasn't about force, however about low-end torque. The Type 4 motors were considerably more robust plus durable than the Type 1 motors, especially inside Transporter service.

In 1972, for the 1973 model year, outdoor revisions included relocated front turn indicators, squared off plus set high inside the valance, above the headlights. Additionally, square-profiled bumpers, that became standard till the finish of the T2 inside 1979, were introduced inside 1973. Crash protection improved with this change as a result of a compressible structure behind the front bumper. This meant which the T2b was capable of meeting US protection specifications for passenger vehicles of the time, though not necessary of vans. The "VW" emblem found on the front valance became somewhat small.

Later model changes were generally mechanical. By 1974, the T2 had gained its final form. Really late inside the T2's shape existence, throughout the late 1970s, the initially prototypes of Type 2 vans with four-wheel drive were built plus tested.
A swing axle is a easy kind of independent suspension crafted plus patented by Edmund Rumpler inside 1903. This had been a revolutionary innovation inside the automotive industry, permitting wheels with respond with irregularities of road surfaces independently, plus help the car with keep a solid road carrying. The first automotive application was the Rumpler Tropfenwagen, the Standard Superior as well as the Volkswagen Beetle.

Many later car back swing axles have universal joints connecting the driveshafts with the differential, that is connected with the chassis. They never have universal joints at the wheels: the wheels are usually perpendicular with the driveshafts. Swing axle suspensions traditionally utilized leaf springs plus shock absorbers. It was additionally selected inside early aircraft, including the Sopwith plus Fokker, generally with rubber bungee plus no damping.
The T2c, that has a somewhat raised rooftop – by regarding 10 cm – inside the early 1990s, is made for the South American plus Central American markets. It is imported into alternative nations, like the UK.

Because 1991, the T2c has been integrated México with all the water-cooled 1.8 L inline four-cylinder 53 kW carbureted engine, conveniently diagnosed by their big, black-coloured, front-mounted radiators, plus because 1995 with all the 1.6 L air-cooled motors for the Brazilian marketplace.

Because creation of the authentic Beetle was halted inside late 2003 because a 2004 model, the T2 stayed truly the only Volkswagen model with all the conventional air-cooled, rear-mounted boxer engine till the Brazilian model changed with a water-cooled engine about 23 December 2005. There had been a 1.6 L 50 hp water-cooled diesel engined adaptation of the T2, that was produced from 1981 with 1985 inside Brazil. This variation was truly affordable – values from 15 km/l with 18 km/l are reported – yet it suffered from low performance plus an insufficiently capable cooling program, that led with brief engine existence.

The end of the Volkswagen air-cooled engine about a worldwide basis was marked with a Special Edition Kombi. An exclusive Silver paint job, plus limited edition emblems were used with just 210 units inside late 2005, plus were available because 2006 models.
An aircooled along with a watercooled VW Kombi, produced inside Brazil. Model years 2005 plus 2006.

More onerous emissions regulations introduced by the Brazilian government for 2006 forced a shift with water-cooled machines. The brand-new "Flex Fuel" water-cooled engine usually run about petrol and alcohol. Borrowed within the Volkswagen Fox, the engine is a rear-mounted EA-111 1.4 L 8v Total Flex 1,390 cc, 58 kW about petrol, plus 60 kW whenever run about ethanol, plus 124 N·m torque. This adaptation has been pretty lucrative, inspite of the minor changes produced with the total T2-bodied car. It nonetheless involves the four-speed transmission, yet with a unique final drive ratio it will cruise at 120 km/h at 4,100 rpm. Top speed is 130 km/h. 0 with 100 km/h is accomplished inside 22.7 seconds. Improvements were created with 6.6% greater gas economy, plus almost 2 decibel less sound.

The Volkswagen Type T2 is undoubtedly the greatest model run inside Brazil, having been introduced inside September 1950 because the Volkswagen "Kombi", a name it has kept throughout creation. The fierce competition from European front-wheel drive new generation vans nonetheless cannot match the Kombi's unparalleled cost-benefit equation. Just yielded inside 2 versions, bus or panel van, it provides just 1 factory option: the back window defog. As of June 2009, the T2 is made at the Volkswagen Group's São Bernardo do Campo plant at a rate of 97 daily.

An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled cars, the axle can be fixed with the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed with the car, with all the wheels rotating about the axle. In the former case, bearings or bushings are offered at the mounting points where the axle is supported. In the latter case, a bearing or bushing sits inside a central hole inside the wheel with let the wheel or gear with turn about the axle. Occasionally, incredibly about bicycles, the latter kind axle is called a spindle.

On vehicles plus pickups, many senses of the term "axle" happen inside everyday use, referring with the shaft itself, its housing, or any transverse pair of wheels. Strictly talking, a shaft that rotates with all the wheel, being either bolted or splined inside fixed connection into it, is known as an "axle" or "axle shaft". However, inside looser use an whole assembly including the surrounding "axle housing" is also known as an "axle".

An even broader sense of the term pertains with each pair of parallel wheels about opposite sides of the car, irrespective of their mechanical connection with every alternative plus with the car frame or body. Thus, transverse pairs of wheels inside an independent suspension can be called "an axle" inside several contexts. This fairly loose description of "axle" is usually chosen inside assessing road tolls or car taxes, plus is taken because a rough proxy for the total weight-bearing ability of the car, as well as its possible for causing wear or damage with roadway surfaces.

Volkswagen Westfalia Campers were conversions of Volkswagen Type 2 available within the early 1950s by 2003. Volkswagen subcontracted the modifications with the business Westfalia-Werke inside Rheda-Wiedenbrück.

Between 1951 plus August 1958, around 1,000 Camper Box conversions were prepared by Westfalia, official builder of Volkswagen camper conversions. In August 1958, the SO models were introduced.

Westfalia unique models included the SO-23, -33 -34, -35, -42, -44, plus -45.

Westfalia Campers were accessible from Volkswagen dealers internationally plus were furthermore delivered through the Tourist Delivery System — whereby a customer might choose up their hot van inside Germany, drive it inside Europe, then VW might ship it with the customer's house. Many Volkswagen Campers were bought by American servicemen plus delivered house inside the 1950s plus 1960s.

From 1979 till 1992 Westfalia Vanagon were built.
Like the Beetle, within the beginning, the Type 2 earned various nicknames from its fans. Among the most well known, at smallest inside Germany, are VW-Bus plus Bulli or Hippie-van or the bus. The Type 2 was meant with be officially called the Bully, however, Heinrich Lanz, manufacturer of the Lanz Bulldog farm tractor, intervened. The model was then presented because the Volkswagen Transporter plus Volkswagen Kleinbus, however, the Bully nickname nevertheless caught about.

The official German-language model names Transporter plus Kombi have additionally caught about because nicknames. Kombi is not just the name of the passenger variant, yet is additionally the Australasian plus Brazilian expression for the entire Type 2 family; inside much the same method which they are all called VW-Bus inside Germany, even the pickup truck variations. In Mexico, the German Kombi was translated because Combi, plus became a home word because of the vehicle's recognition inside Mexico City's public transportation program. In Peru, where the expression Combi was similarly adopted, the expression Combi Asesina is usually employed for buses of synonymous size, as a result of the notorious recklessness plus competition of bus motorists inside Lima with receive guests. In Portugal it's termed as Pão-de-Forma considering its shape resembles a bread baked inside a mold. Similarly, inside Denmark, the Type 2 is called Rugbrød. Finns dubbed it Kleinbus, because various taxicab firms adopted it for group transportation; the name Kleinbus has become an appellative for all passenger vans. The car is sometimes known because Kleinbus inside Chile.

In the US, yet, it really is a VW bus, a "vee-dub", a minibus, a hippie-mobile, hippie bus, or hippie van, "combie", Microbus or perhaps a Transporter with aficionados. The early versions yielded before 1967 employed a split front windshield, plus their comparative rarity has led with their becoming popular by collectors plus fanatics. The upcoming adaptation, available inside the US marketplace from 1968 with 1979, is characterised with a big, curved windshield plus is commonly called a "bay-window". It was changed by the Vanagon, of that just the Westfalia camper variation has a prevalent nickname, "Westy".

It was called Volksie Bus inside South Africa, notable inside a series of which country's TV commercials. Kombi is furthermore a generic nickname for vans plus minibuses inside South Africa plus Swaziland, usually selected because a signifies of public transportation. In Nigeria it was called Danfo.

In the UK, it is very recognised as a "Campervan". In France, it was called a "camping-car" though this has been extended with include different, usually more specialized cars inside more latest instances.
The manufacturing of the Brazilian Volkswagen Kombi ends inside 2013 with a creation run of 600 Last Edition cars. The phaseout of the T2c marks the finish of a era that lasted because 1945 breaks, the wheel won't come off, potentially preventing a severe accident.

T2 creation started inside 1970 at the Puebla assembly factory.

Offered initially just because a nine-passenger variation called the Volkswagen Kombi, plus from 1973 equally its cargo van adaptation called the Volkswagen Panel, both variants were fitted with all the 1.5 L air-cooled boxer engine plus four-speed manual gearbox. In 1974, the 1.6 L 44 bhp boxer engine changed the 1.5 past 1, plus creation continued this technique about 1987. In 1987, the water-cooled 1.8 L 85 bhp inline four-cylinder engine changed the air-cooled 1.6 L. This fresh model is recognisable by its black grille, bumpers plus moldings.

In 1975, Volkswagen de Mexico ordered 2 specially-made pickups from Germany, 1 single cab plus 1 double cab, for the Puebla plant. These were evaluated for the possibility of building pickups inside Mexico, plus were outfitted with each choice except the Arctic package, including front plus back fog lights, intermittent wipers, trip odometer, clock, bumper rubber, PVC tilt, plus double doorways found on the single cab storage compartment. VW de Mexico was interested inside having the lights, wiring, brake systems plus alternative components produced inside Mexico. Ultimately, VW de Mexico declined with make pickups, as well as the pickups were available with an Autohaus, a Volkswagen dealer inside San Antonio, Texas, because they couldn't be available inside Mexico. By law, no German-made Volkswagens were with be available inside Mexico. These are possibly truly the only pickups that have been yielded inside Germany for Mexican import, plus have the "ME" export code found on the M-code plate. The green double cab was available with a brand-new owner inside NY, plus has been lost track of. The light gray single cab nevertheless exists. Pickups were not produced inside Mexico, neither were they imported into Mexico from Germany, conserve for these 2 examples.

In 1988, a deluxe variant – the Volkswagen Caravelle – created its first inside the Mexican marketplace with compete with all the Nissan Ichi Van, that was obtainable in cargo, passenger plus deluxe versions.

The leading variations between your 2 are which the Caravelle was available because an eight-passenger variation, when the Combi was accessible because a nine-passenger adaptation, the Caravelle was just painted inside metallic hues, whilst the Combi was just obtainable in non-metallic hues, as well as the Caravelle was fitted with an AM/FM stereo cassette sound program, tinted windows, velour upholstery, reading lights, mid plus back headrests, plus wheel covers within the European T25 model.

In 1991, the 10 cm high rooftop created its first in every variants, as well as the Combi started with be available inside eight- or nine-passenger variants. In 1991, because Mexican anti-pollution laws necessary a three-way catalytic converter, a Digifant gas injection program changed the past carburetor. The 3 variants continued without change till 1994.

In 1994, manufacturing ended inside Mexico, with models being imported from Brazil. The Caravelle was discontinued, plus both the Combi as well as the Panel were just available inside white color plus finally inside 2002, changed by the T4 EuroVan Pasajeros plus EuroVan Carga, passenger plus cargo van inside lengthy wheelbase variation, inline five-cylinder 2.5 L 115 bhp plus five-speed guide gearbox imported from Germany.

The semi-floating shape carries the fat of the car found on the axle shaft itself; there is a single bearing at the finish of the axle housing which carries the weight within the axle plus which the axle rotates by. This shape is found beneath many 1/2 lot plus lighter pickups plus SUVs.

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