The Toyota Yaris is a subcompact auto yielded by Toyota because 1999, substituting the Starlet. Between 1999 plus 2005, several markets received the same cars below the Toyota Echo name. Toyota has employed the "Yaris" plus "Echo" names found on the export variation of many different Japanese-market models. First generation models were advertised between 1999 plus 2005 beneath the "Yaris" plus "Echo" names depending available. Hatchback, coupe, plus sedan body variants were available. Hatchback: versions obtain within the Japanese-market Toyota Vitz. Coupe plus sedan: versions obtain within the Japanese-market Toyota Platz.
The initial generation XP10 series Toyota Vitz was crafted by Sotiris Kovos at Toyota s ED2 studio inside Europe. Production started inside late 1998, with a Japanese on-sale date of January 1999; European sales commenced 2 months later because the "Toyota Yaris". Whenever introduced with Australasia inside October 1999, the "Toyota Echo" name was selected, because was the case inside Canada whenever introduced there inside 2003. The "Echo" plus "Yaris" names were moreover provided with the export adaptation of the connected Japanese marketplace Toyota Platz sedan, furthermore accessible because a coupe inside North America. Frequently available alongside the hatchback plus advertised because a single line of cars, outdoor panels normal amongst the Vitz plus Platz were limited with the front doorways. But, because Vitz plus Platz were tailored utilizing the same platform, the mechanicals are mostly identical plus both share a prevalent dashboard component. There was equally a "Yaris Verso" or "Echo Verso" variant available inside several export markets from late 1999, based found on the Japanese "Toyota Fun Cargo". The Verso MPV uses the same running gear because the Vitz, yet qualities a more spacious interior.
At its introduction inside 1998, it earned the Car of the Year Japan Award.
Occupant protection Organization Rating
ANCAP 3/5 stars
Euro NCAP 4/5 stars
UCSR 2/5 stars
What became the XP10 series was shown earlier inside concept shape at the 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show. This concept, titled "Funtime" was developed below the leadership of Shuhei Toyoda, whom equally commissioned 2 more models based found on the same platform: the "Funcoupe" as well as the "Funcargo", the predecessor with the upcoming manufacturing model Fun Cargo. Styled inside Brussels by Toyota s European Office of Creation, the "Fun project" because it was acknowledged, was envisaged with underline the convenience of shared platform technology. These concept cars morphed into the New Basic Car system, with every separate NBC model designated a amount, NBC1 inside the case of the Vitz three-door. The name Vitz is the phonetic Anglicized spelling of the German word Witz meaning "wit". Toyota claims the contrived name Yaris is "intended with convey a European impression", when Echo "is intended with Echo nothing."
Instead of traditional analogue instruments, the Vitz used digital instruments that were installed inside a "pod" inside the center of the dashboard. Whenever sales commenced inside the Canadian marketplace this wasn't the case, with Toyota opting to suit a traditional speedometer, nonetheless installed inside the center of the dashboard.
In 2003 the facelifted Phase 2 Vitz was introduced with different bumpers plus teardrop front lights.
Euro NCAP crash tested the dual-airbag equipped XP10 series inside 2000, rating the auto 29 from 37 for adult resident security, or 4 from five stars. The pedestrian rating is 13 points or 2 of from 4 stars. In July 2004, ANCAP tested the XP10 with just a driver s airbag fitted, causing a 23.64 from 37 grading, or 3 from five stars. The 2010 edition of Monash University s Used Car Safety Ratings, found which the XP10 delivers a "poor" amount of resident protection security inside the event of a accident.
The key function of the bumper is with safeguard the auto s body inside a slight collision, usually at parking speed. The bumper structure about contemporary vehicles commonly consists of the plastic cover over a reinforcement bar made from steel, aluminum, fiberglass composite, or plastic.
In many jurisdictions, bumpers are legally necessary about all cars. The height plus location of bumpers can be legally specified too, with guarantee which whenever cars of different heights are inside an accident, the small car won't slide beneath the greater car. Although a car s bumper systems ought to be crafted with absorb the power of low-speed collisions plus aid safeguard the vehicle s protection plus alternative pricey components positioned nearby, many bumpers are made to satisfy just the minimal regulatory practices.
Bumpers are not capable of reducing injury with car occupants inside high-speed impacts, yet are increasingly being tailored with mitigate injury with pedestrians struck by vehicles, including from the utilization of bumper covers made from flexible components.
Crashworthy systems plus equipment avoid or lower the severity of injuries whenever a crash is imminent or really happening. Much analysis is carried out utilizing anthropomorphic crash test dummies.
Seatbelts limit the forward motion of a resident, stretch with absorb power, with lengthen the time of the resident s bad acceleration inside a crash, reducing the loading found on the occupants body. They avoid occupants being ejected within the car plus confirm which they are inside the correct position for the procedure of the airbags.
Airbags inflate with cushion the impact of the car resident with numerous components of the car s inside. The most crucial being the prevention of direct impact of the driver s head with all the steering wheel plus door pillar.
Laminated windshields stay inside 1 part whenever affected, preventing penetration of unbelted occupants heads plus preserving a minimal nevertheless adequate transparency for control of the auto instantly following a collision. It is moreover a bonded structural piece of the protection mobile. Tempered glass side plus back windows break into granules with minimally sharp edges, instead of splintering into jagged fragments because average glass does.
Crumple zones absorb plus dissipate the force of the collision, displacing plus diverting it away within the passenger compartment plus reducing the damaging acceleration impact force found on the car occupants. Vehicles usually include a front, back plus perhaps side crumple zones too.
Safety Cell - the passenger compartment is reinforced with excellent strength contents, at places topic with significant plenty inside a crash, inside purchase with keep the survival area for the car occupants.
Side impact security beams, also known as anti-intrusion bars.
Collapsible universally jointed steering columns, together with steering wheel airbag. The steering program is installed behind the front axle - behind plus secure by, the front crumple zone. This reduces the danger plus severity of driver impact or impalement found on the column inside a frontal crash.
Pedestrian security systems.
Padding of the instrument panel plus alternative inside components, found on the car inside regions probably with be struck by the occupants throughout a crash, as well as the thoughtful location of mounting brackets away from those regions.
Cargo barriers are occasionally fitted with give a bodily barrier between passenger plus cargo compartments inside cars including SUVs, station wagons plus vans. These aid avoid injuries caused by occupants being struck by unsecured cargo. They could additionally assist avoid collapse of the rooftop inside the event of the car rollover.
The XP10 series was introduced with Australia about 8 October 1999 because the "Echo", substituting the Starlet. Both the three- plus five-door hatchback variants were accessible, that available alongside the four-door Toyota Platz-derived Echo sedan. Sourced from Japan, Australian-market Echo hatchbacks received the 1.3-litre 2NZ-FE engine with a standard five-speed guide transmission plus optional four-speed automatic. The base model was fitted with a driver s airbag plus cassette player, though the optional protection pack added a passenger airbag plus anti-lock brakes. Power steering was created standard equipment inside October 2002. The Echo "Sportivo" was introduced inside March 2001, fitted with all the 1.5-litre 1NZ-FE engine with manual transmission just. Compared with the models similar with the Echo "Sportivo" inside different markets, the Australian variant is distinguishable with its nearby developed T-CAM body kit plus downgraded 14-inch alloy wheels.
Sales of the facelifted hatchback range commenced inside March 2003. At the same time, the cost dropped plus standard equipment was improved, with air conditioner, a CD player, plus remote keyless entry included, though the protection pack was deleted because a choice all together. Consequently, ANCAP tested the Echo inside July 2004 plus demoted it from a four- with a three-star protection rating. ANCAP had earlier based its four-star rating found on the test performed by Euro NCAP, that was done with all the passenger airbag fitted. After the reassessment, Toyota reintroduced the protection pack from 1 December 2004 for the 2005 model year. In June 2005, Toyota Australia introduced the Echo "Rush" three- plus five-doors. More equipment fitted over the base model included 14-inch alloy wheels, front energy windows, plus front fog lights.
A hydraulic automatic transmission consists of the following parts:
Torque converter: A kind of fluid coupling, hydraulically connecting the engine with the transmission. It takes the destination of the mechanical clutch, permitting the transmission with remain inside gear as well as the engine with stay running whilst the car is stationary, without stalling. A torque converter differs from a fluid coupling, because it offers a varying amount of torque multiplication at low engine speeds, improving breakaway acceleration. This really is accomplished with a 3rd associate inside the coupling assembly recognised as the stator, plus by changing the shapes of the vanes inside the coupling inside such a means because with curve the fluid s path into the stator. The stator catches the kinetic vitality of the transmission fluid, inside impact utilizing the leftover force of it to improve torque multiplication.
Pump: Not with be confused with all the impeller inside the torque converter, the pump is usually a gear pump installed amongst the torque converter as well as the planetary gearset. It draws transmission fluid from a sump plus pressurizes it, that is required for transmission components to work. The input for the pump is associated with the torque converter housing, which is bolted with the engine s flywheel, thus the pump delivers stress when the engine is running plus there is enough transmission fluid, however, the downside is the fact that whenever the engine is not running, no oil stress is accessible to work the principal components of the transmission, plus is therefore impossible with push-start a car loaded with an automatic transmission. Early automatic transmissions equally had a back pump for towing reasons, guaranteeing the lubrication of the rear-end components.
Clutches plus bands: with impact gear changes, 1 of 2 kinds of clutches or bands are utilized with hold a specific associate of the planetary gearset motionless, when permitting another associate with turn, therefore transmitting torque plus producing gear reductions or overdrive ratios. These clutches are actuated by the valve body, their sequence controlled by the transmission s internal programming. Principally, a kind of device termed as a sprag or roller clutch is employed for routine upshifts/downshifts. Running much because a ratchet, it transmits torque just inside 1 way, free-wheeling or "overrunning" inside the additional. The benefit of the kind of clutch is the fact that it eliminates the sensitivity of timing a simultaneous clutch release/apply about 2 planetaries, just "taking up" the drivetrain weight whenever actuated, plus releasing automatically whenever the upcoming gear s sprag clutch assumes the torque transfer. The bands come into play for manually chosen gears, like low range or reverse, plus work found on the planetary drum s circumference. Bands are not used whenever drive/overdrive range is chosen, the torque being sent by the sprag clutches rather. Bands are utilized for braking; the GM Turbo-Hydramatics included this..
Valve body: hydraulic control center which receives pressurized fluid within the principal pump operated by the fluid coupling/torque converter. The stress from this pump is regulated plus utilized with run a network of spring-loaded valves, check balls plus servo pistons. The valves employ the pump stress as well as the stress from a centrifugal governor found on the output side with control that ratio is chosen found on the gearset; because the car plus engine change speed, the difference amongst the pressures changes, causing different sets of valves with open plus close. The hydraulic stress controlled by these valves forces the different clutch plus brake band actuators, therefore controlling the surgery of the planetary gearset with choose the maximum gear ratio for the active running conditions. But, inside several contemporary automatic transmissions, the valves are controlled by electro-mechanical servos that are controlled by the electronic engine control device or perhaps a separate transmission control device.
Hydraulic & lubricating oil: called automatic transmission fluid, this component of the transmission delivers lubrication, deterioration prevention, along with a hydraulic medium with convey mechanical force. Primarily made of processed petroleum, plus processed with offer qualities which improve smooth force transmission plus heighten service existence, the ATF is regarded as the some components of the automatic transmission which requires routine service because the car ages.
The multitude of components, together with the complex shape of the valve body, initially created hydraulic automatic transmissions more complicated with build plus repair than manual transmissions. In most vehicles they have generally been extra-cost choices for this cause. Mass production plus years of improvement have reduced this expense gap.
Airbags for passenger vehicles were introduced inside the United States inside the mid-1970s, whenever seat belt use rates inside the nation were very low. Ford built an experimental fleet of vehicles with airbags inside 1971, followed by General Motors inside 1973 about Chevrolet cars. The early fleet of experimental GM cars built with airbags experienced 7 deaths, 1 of that was later suspected with have been caused by the airbag.
In 1974, GM prepared its "Air Cushion Restraint System" accessible because a normal creation choice inside full-size Cadillacs, Buick plus Oldsmobile models. The GM vehicles within the 1970s built with ACRS had a driver-side airbag, a driver-side knee restraint, along with a passenger-side airbag. The passenger-side airbag, shields both front guests plus unlike many new ones, it integrated a knee pillow along with a torso pillow, plus it equally had double stage deployment that varied depending found on the force of the impact. The vehicles loaded with ACRS had lap belts for all seating positions however they didn't have shoulder belts. Shoulder belts were absolutely compulsory equipment inside the United States about closed vehicles without airbags for the driver plus outer front passenger seating positions, yet GM selected with market its airbags because a replace for shoulder belts.
The early development of airbags coincided with an global interest inside car protection legislation. Many protection specialists advocated a performance-based resident security standard instead of a standard mandating a specific technical answer, that can quickly become outdated plus may not be a affordable approach. However, because nations successively mandated seat belt restraints, there was clearly less focus located about alternative designs for a number of years.
The Toyota Platz is a subcompact car which was produced inside Japan by Toyota from 1999 by with 2005, whenever changed by the Toyota Belta. Designated by Toyota because the XP10 series, the Platz was available inside export markets because either the Toyota Echo or Toyota Yaris. The "Echo" plus "Yaris" names were additionally provided with the export adaptation of the associated Japanese marketplace Toyota Vitz hatchback, from that the Platz derives. In Japan, it was just accessible at the Toyopet Store dealerships.
"Platz" is German for "space". Just inline-four machines were fitted with the Platz, that was available inside Japan because a four-door sedan just. A coupe was additionally obtainable in North America where the vehicle was badged "Echo".
The Platz was introduced inside 1999 because a sedan available internationally. For North America just, whenever the model established because the Echo inside 1999 for the 2000 model year, a coup guise was furthermore available. The Platz is seriously connected with the Vitz hatchback---with that is shares front doorways, a normal interior plus mechanical componentry. The running gear is equally shared with a lower degree with all the ist plus Toyota bB, available inside the United States because the Scion xA plus xB respectively, as well as the Japan-only WiLL Vi. The same platform is the base for the Japanese-only Probox plus Succeed wagons.
In the United States, the Echo available virtually 50,000 examples inside its initially year, with really half which numerous inside 2003. The Echo was an element of Toyota Project Genesis, a failed effort with bring young customers with the marque inside the United States. The Echo available inside significant volumes inside Canada. There, Toyota moreover available three- plus five-door versions of the Toyota Vitz equally below the name "Echo", though they went about sale because 2004 models with substitute the Toyota Echo coupe. As a reaction for Toyota delivering Echo hatchbacks with Canada, the Toyota Echo coupe was last available inside Canada because a 2003 model, yet stayed about sale inside the United States till ending manufacturing because a 2005 model, together with the sedan. It was the predecessor with the present North American Toyota Yaris, sharing various identical qualities, including the odd center location of the speedometer plus gauges, because opposed with inside front of the steering wheel. Power choices found on the Echo are a uncommon discover. Many are only loaded with manual windows plus locks, A/C, along with a six speaker sound program with a CD and/or a cassette player.
The Echo is recognized for the gas economy, with EPA estimates of 38 mpg Hwy plus 25 mpg City, 33 mpg combined.
In certain components of Southeast Asia, a modified adaptation of the Platz with different body panels is available beneath the name Toyota Vios.
The 2010 edition of Monash University s Used Car Safety Ratings, found which the XP10 delivers a "poor" amount of resident protection security inside the event of a accident.
Toyota redesigned the Vitz inside early 2005, going about sale inside Japan which February. The Toyota Belta sedan, shares underpinnings with all the Vitz. But, whilst the Vitz was tailored at Toyota s European ED2 shape studios, the Belta was tailored at their Japanese shape studios. While the outgoing Vitz hatchback plus Platz sedan feel almost likewise, the redesigned Vitz plus Belta are more subtly connected. The two vehicles share a frame as well as the drivetrain components yet the sheet metal is different.
2011--2013 Daihatsu Charade
The European, Australian, Canadian, Mexican, Venezuelan plus Puerto Rican markets saw the next generation Vitz close to the end of 2005. In the Australian plus North American markets, the auto was available because the "Yaris" for the very first time. The manufacturing Yaris for the US marketplace was unveiled at the Los Angeles Car Show inside January 2006. The XP90 series Yaris is made inside Japan, France, plus Thailand.
The past 4-cylinder 1.0 VVT-i engine was changed by the 3-cylinder engine moreover found inside the Toyota Aygo. The 1.3-litre engine was revised to provide somewhat more energy, as well as the 1.4 D-4D got a 15 PS boost with 90 PS, the past engine permitting it with achieve exceptional gas economy. For the European marketplace inside early 2009 the Yaris added a 1.33-litre engine with Stop & Start development. The Yaris became the initially automobile inside its class to provide 9 airbags.
It moreover received a minor facelift inside 2010 with slight subtle revisions with its bumper with in-built cornering protectors, air dams plus an orange tinted signal about its tail lights.
From 2011 with 2013, Daihatsu can market the XP90 generation Yaris beneath the "Daihatsu Charade" name because a Thai-produced five-door hatchback. Powertrains usually include a 1.3-litre engine plus six-speed guide or optional automatic. The Charade is available alongside the newer-generation XP130 series, that will be badged "Toyota Yaris".
The Toyota Yaris for the Australian marketplace was revealed at the July 2011 Australian International Motor Show held inside Melbourne. The unique Yaris has a sportier, more rounded grille plus redesigned front bumper. The Australian Yaris comes inside either a 1.3-litre or 1.5-litre driven petrol engine. Models available are the standard YR, the mid-range YRS, YRX as well as the sportier ZR that attributes a stylish bumper with bodykit. The standard YR model attributes 7 SRS airbags plus Multi-Information Display because standard.