Contents: * General Information * Tune-Up and Routine Maintenance * 4A-FE and 7A-FE Engines * 1ZZ-FE Engines * General Engine Overhaul Procedures * Cooling, Heating and Air Conditioning Systems * Fuel and Exhaust Systems * Engine Electrical Systems * Emissions and Engine Control Systems * Manual Transaxle * Automatic Transaxle * Clutch and Driveaxles * Brakes * Suspension and Steering Systems * Body * Chassis Electrical System * Wiring Diagrams
Covers everything you need to know, step by step procedures, hundreds of photographs and illustrations, routine maintenance, wiring diagrams, repairs and overhauls, and what tools to buy. Gregory's manuals are based on an actual vehicle stripdown and are researched and written by automotive engineers with vast experience.
The Toyota Corolla is a line of subcompact plus compact vehicles produced by Toyota. Introduced inside 1966, the Corolla managed with become the best-selling automobile internationally by 1974 plus has been among the best-selling vehicles inside the planet because then. In 1997, the Corolla became the number one marketing nameplate inside the globe, surpassing the Volkswagen Beetle. Toyota reached the milestone of 40 million Corollas available over eleven decades inside July 2013. The series has undergone many main redesigns.
The name Corolla is piece of Toyota s naming custom of utilizing names extracted within the Toyota Crown for sedans. The Corolla has constantly been exclusive inside Japan with Toyota Corolla Store places, plus produced inside Japan with a twin, called the Toyota Sprinter till 2000.
Early models were largely rear-wheel drive, when later models have been front-wheel drive. The Corolla s conventional competitors have been the Nissan Sunny, introduced the same year because the Corolla inside Japan as well as the later Honda Civic. The Corolla s chassis designation code is "E", because described inside Toyota s chassis plus engine codes.
Front-wheel drive is a shape of engine/transmission design utilized inside engine cars, where the engine forces the front wheels just. Many contemporary front-wheel-drive cars feature a transverse engine, instead of the traditional longitudinal engine arrangement usually found inside rear-wheel-drive plus four-wheel-drive vehicle
The massive most of front-wheel-drive cars now utilize a transversely installed engine with "end-on" installed transmission, driving the front wheels through driveshafts connected through continual velocity joints. This configuration was produced common by the 1967 Simca 1100, as well as the 1969 Fiat 128. The 1959 Mini, whilst a pioneering transverse front-wheel-drive car, selected a significantly different arrangement with all the transmission inside the sump.
Volvo Cars has turned its whole lineup following the 900 series with front-wheel drive. Swedish designers at the firm have mentioned which transversely installed motors let for more crumple zone location inside a head about collision. American car producers are today shifting bigger models back with rear-wheel drive. There were reasonably some rear-wheel-drive vehicles advertised inside North America by the early 1990s; Chrysler s auto line-up was completely front-wheel drive by 1990. GM followed suit inside 1996 where its B-body line was phased out, where its sports vehicles were truly the only RWDs marketed; by the early 2000s, the Chevrolet Corvette plus Cadillac Catera were truly the only RWD vehicles provided by General Motors till the introduction of the Sigma platform.
The Toyota Corolla is the ninth generation of vehicles available by Toyota beneath the Corolla nameplate. In Japan, this series arrived with the marketplace inside August 2000, though exports were usually not accomplished till 2001 plus 2002 depending available.
The sedan plus station wagon arrived initially inside August 2000, followed by the five-door hatchback inside January 2001, as well as the Europe-only three-door hatchback inside 2002. Toyota supplemented the authentic styling with an edgier, hatchback-only styling treatment from 2002. Sedans plus wagons available inside Japan adopted a fresh front-end shape inside 2004, though this adaptation didn't usually reach export markets. In alternative Asian markets as well as the Americas, the ninth generation Corolla had special front plus back styling treatments with light changes over the model s creation run.
The ninth-generation Corolla available a longer 2600 mm wheelbase. It is made about a shortened Toyota Vista platform---the Vista being a mid-sized, instead of compact automobile. From being advertised because a premium compact sedan, with an affordable hatchback, the 9th-generation Corolla was crafted because a Global car with suit different marketplace requirements. This was 1 of Toyota s many flexible plus top models ever yielded.
An upmarket adaptation of the ninth-generation Corolla, dubbed the Corolla Altis, is produced plus available inside nations like Thailand, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore plus Taiwan. It debuted inside late 2001 because model year 2002 because a bigger plus more luxurious variant of the Japanese Corolla, featuring distinctive interior plus outdoor panels which separates it within the standard Corolla. The Corolla Altis is targeted at customers whom choose more comfort than the standard Corolla yet never want to purchase the more luxurious Camry. Two versions of motors are available: the 81 kW, 1.6 L 3ZZ-FE engine as well as the 100 kW, 1.8 L 1ZZ-FE engine, both with VVT-i development.
In 2004, the Corolla Altis received its initial facelift. Changes include a fresh grille shape, a sleeker front bumper, redesigned fog lights, hot LED tail lights, different alloy wheels plus minor interior updates. Two years later, with maintain with its new competitors, the Corolla Altis received its 2nd facelift. Exterior changes include another redesigned grille, redesigned chrome back license plate ornament, a hot 3rd LED brake light, plus unique sound switches found on the steering wheel. A new aerokit plus modern wing mirrors with signal indicators is accessible because an optional package inside Malaysia.
A low end variant of the Corolla Altis is equally branded because the Toyota Limo, featuring lower spec plus intended for taxi company inside Thailand. It is to not be confused with all the low end taxi variation of the Toyota Vios that is also known as Toyota Limo inside Indonesia.
In Malaysia, the eighth generation Corolla Altis was introduced inside late 2002. Notably inside Malaysia the models available had tail lights which are identical with the models which are available outside of Asia & Southeast Asia. It attributes three-round insets for the tail lights rather of the standard single round inset chosen inside different Asian markets. These were later changed with all the standard single round insets. Both the 1.6 L plus 1.8 L models were available inside Malaysia.
Face-lifted Toyota Corolla EX
In Singapore, Toyota s exclusive authorised dealer Borneo Motors initially available the Japanese adaptation of the Corolla, yet later changed it with all the Corolla Altis inside 2004.
In terms of product lifespan plus quantity of units available, the Corolla Altis conveniently outlived its Corolla predecessors, creating it currently the best Corolla variant/generation inside Southeast Asia.
3NZ-FE --- 1.6 L I4, 16 Valve, DOHC, VVT-i, EFI with 3-way catalytic converter, Maximum Output: 110 hp / 6,000 rpm plus Maximum Torque: 150 Nm / 4,400 rpm.
1ZZ-FE --- 1.8 L I4, 16 Valve, DOHC, VVT-i, EFI with 3-way catalytic converter, Maximum Output: 134 hp / 6,000 rpm plus Maximum Torque: 171 Nm / 4,200 rpm.
The Corolla E120 has been available inside China because the Corolla EX from Tianjin FAW Toyota Motor Co. Ltd. alongside with all the new tenth generation Corolla. It is sometimes known because the that is a direct translation of Corolla inside Mandarin Chinese. Three trim degrees are accessible namely: Value, Excellence & Elegance. The Excellence plus Elegance editions are available with a 5 speed guide or perhaps a 4 speed automatic gearbox whilst the Value edition is just obtainable in guide transmission. The Corolla EX is driven with a 1ZR-FE double VVT-i engine.
The Corolla sedan, wagon plus 5-door hatchback available inside Australia were sourced from Japan, whilst several hatchbacks were sourced from South Africa. Trim degrees available were the Ascent, Ascent Sport, Conquest, plus Ultima. The stylish Levin plus significant performance Sportivo was obtainable in hatchback just plus was integrated South Africa when the Levin was basically sourced from Japan. The Sportivo was driven by the 2ZZ-GE engine along with a six-speed guide gearbox, whilst the different models had the 1ZZ-FE. Minor changes inside 2004 included the grille plus changing the headlights with a "rip drop" sort. The Sportivo was discontinued inside Australia from 2006 due with the prohibitive bills included inside changing the engine with comply with Euro IV emissions. All the additional models had their engine force plus torque reduced with 93 kW plus 161 Nm from 100 kW plus 171 Nm respectively from October 2005 creation with comply with Euro IV. From May 2006, the Ascent plus Ascent Sport models were upgraded with standard front force windows plus passenger air bag, whilst the Conquest models had ABS brakes because standard. The equipment updates were not used with the wagon, that ceased manufacturing inside August 2006.
Toyota Corolla Kombi D-4D
E120 Corolla hatchback
For the European marketplace, the Corolla was available inside 3 door Hatchback, 5 door Hatchback, Sedan or Saloon, plus Wagon or Kombi / Estate types. The significant performance Corolla T-Sport with 1.8 liter 2ZZ-GE engine was obtainable in certain nations.
European/Israeli/Moroccan marketplace engines:
2002--2007 --- 4ZZ-FE --- 1.4 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 95 hp
2002--2007 --- 3ZZ-FE --- 1.6 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVT-i, 109 hp
2002--2005 --- 2ZZ-GE --- 1.8 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, FI, VVTL-i, 189 hp, 180 Nm @ 6800 rpm
2006--2007 --- 2ZZ-GE --- 1.8 L I4, 16-valve DOHC, supercharged, FI, VVTL-i, 215 hp --- Compressor
2004--2007 --- 1ND-TV --- 1.4 L I4 diesel, 8-valve SOHC, turbocharged, D-4D, 89 hp
2003--2007 --- 1CD-FTV --- 2.0 L I4 diesel, 16-valve DOHC, turbocharged, D-4D, 90 hp --- without intercooler
2003--2007 --- 1CD-FTV --- 2.0 L I4 diesel, 16-valve DOHC, turbocharged, D-4D, 116 hp --- with intercooler
The initial commercial electronic gas injection program was Electrojector, developed by the Bendix Corporation plus was provided by American Motors Corporation inside 1957. The Rambler Rebel, showcased AMC s fresh 327 cu inside engine. The Electrojector was a choice plus rated at 288 bhp. The EFI yielded peak torque 500 rpm lower than the equal carburetored engine The Rebel Owners Manual described the shape plus surgery of the modern program.. The expense of the EFI choice was US5 plus it was accessible about 15 June 1957. Electrojector s teething difficulties meant just pre-production vehicles were thus equipped: therefore, few vehicles thus equipped were ever available plus none were prepared accessible with the public. The EFI program inside the Rambler ran fine inside warm weather, yet suffered difficult beginning inside cooler temperatures.
Chrysler available Electrojector found on the 1958 Chrysler 300D, DeSoto Adventurer, Dodge D-500 plus Plymouth Fury, arguably the initially series-production vehicles built with an EFI program. It was jointly designed by Chrysler plus Bendix. The early electronic components were not equal with the rigors of underhood service, nonetheless, plus were too slow with maintain with all the demands of "found on the fly" engine control. Most of the 35 cars initially thus equipped were field-retrofitted with 4-barrel carburetors. The Electrojector patents were subsequently available with Bosch.
Bosch developed an electronic gas injection program, called D-Jetronic, that was initially utilized found on the VW 1600TL/E inside 1967. This became a speed/density program, utilizing engine speed plus intake manifold air density with calculate "air mass" flow rate and therefore gas specifications. This program was adopted by VW, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Citron, Saab, plus Volvo. Lucas certified the program for manufacturing with Jaguar.
Bosch superseded the D-Jetronic program with all the K-Jetronic plus L-Jetronic systems for 1974, though several vehicles continued utilizing D-Jetronic for the following years. In 1970, the Isuzu 117 Coup was introduced with a Bosch-supplied D-Jetronic gas injected engine available just inside Japan.
Chevrolet Cosworth Vega engine showing Bendix electronic gas injection.
In Japan, the Toyota Celica employed electronic, multi-port gas injection inside the optional 18R-E engine inside January 1974. Nissan available electronic, multi-port gas injection inside 1975 with all the Bosch L-Jetronic program utilized inside the Nissan L28E engine plus installed inside the Nissan Fairlady Z, Nissan Cedric, as well as the Nissan Gloria. Nissan equally installed multi-point gas injection inside the Nissan Y44 V8 engine inside the Nissan President. Toyota shortly followed with all the same technologies inside 1978 found on the 4M-E engine installed inside the Toyota Crown, the Toyota Supra, as well as the Toyota Mark II. In the 1980s, the Isuzu Piazza, as well as the Mitsubishi Starion added gas injection because standard equipment, developed individually with both firms history of diesel driven motors. 1981 saw Mazda provide gas injection inside the Mazda Luce with all the Mazda FE engine, plus inside 1983, Subaru available gas injection inside the Subaru EA81 engine installed inside the Subaru Leone. Honda followed inside 1984 with their own program, called PGM-FI inside the Honda Accord, as well as the Honda Vigor utilizing the Honda ES3 engine.
The limited manufacturing Chevrolet Cosworth Vega was introduced inside March 1975 utilizing a Bendix EFI program with pulse-time manifold injection, 4 injector valves, an electronic control device, five independent sensors plus 2 gas pumps. The EFI program was developed with meet stringent emission control needs plus marketplace demands for a technologically advanced sensitive car. 5000 hand-built Cosworth Vega machines were yielded nevertheless just 3,508 vehicles were available from 1976.
The Cadillac Seville was introduced inside 1975 with an EFI program prepared by Bendix plus modelled pretty carefully about Bosch s D-Jetronic. L-Jetronic initial appeared found on the 1974 Porsche 914, plus utilizes a mechanical airflow meter which produces a signal which is proportional with "air volume". This approach needed more sensors with measure the atmospheric stress plus temperature, with eventually calculate "air mass". L-Jetronic was generally adopted about European vehicles of which period, along with a some Japanese models a brief time later.
In 1980, Motorola introduced the initially electronic engine control device, the EEC-III. Its integrated control of engine functions is today the standard approach for gas injection systems. The Motorola technologies was installed inside Ford North American items.
The Toyota MC platform is a front-wheel drive car platform which has underpinned different Toyota plus Lexus models within the compact plus mid-size categories. MC sits above the elder NBC plus new B platforms, yet under the Toyota K platform crafted for bigger models including the Camry. Automobiles based found on the MC chassis began creation inside 1997 with all the Toyota Prius.
Both the older Toyota Corolla plus Corona/Avensis have been changed by the MC. It had been a element of Toyota s program with cut fees, that included reduction of different auto platforms.
The business revised plus up-to-date the MC because the Toyota New MC platform, debuting with all the Toyota RAV4 inside 2005. It is subsequently changed by the C platform with all the 4th generation Toyota Prius, built beneath Toyota s brand-new development framework, the Toyota New Global Architecture.
The initial automobile recognized with utilize these an arrangement had been a 1911 front-wheel drive auto with a clutch at every end of the engine, driving the front wheels straight. The initial lucrative transverse-engine vehicles were the two-cylinder DKW "Front" series of vehicles, that initial appeared inside 1931. After the Second World War, SAAB utilized the configuration inside their initially model, the Saab 92, inside 1947. The arrangement was equally chosen for Borgward s Goliath plus Hansa brand vehicles plus inside a some different German vehicles. But, it was with Alec Issigonis s Morris Mini plus Austin Seven which the shape gained acclaim, inside 1959.
This shape reached its ultimate extent beginning with Dante Giacosa s elaboration of it for Fiat. He associated the engine with its gearbox with a shaft plus set the differential off-center thus it might be associated with the gearbox more conveniently. The axleshafts within the differential with the wheels consequently differed inside size, that might have produced the vehicle s steering asymmetrical were it not for their torsional stiffness being created the same. Now many little plus small/medium sized vehicles built throughout the globe employ this arrangement.
The Lamborghini Miura utilized a transverse, mid-mounted four.0 litre V12, a configuration which was unheard of inside 1965, though today more common
The Land Rover LR2 Freelander, together with all Volvo models from 1998 about, employ a transversely-mounted engine inside purchase with heighten passenger area inside the car. This has moreover permitted for improved protection inside a frontal impact, due with more front with back engine compartment room being built. The outcome is a bigger front crumple zone.
Transverse machines have equally been popular inside buses. In the United States they were available inside the early 1930s by Twin Coach plus selected with limited achievement inside Dwight Austin s Pickwick Nite-Coach. Transverse bus motors initially appeared commonly inside the Yellow Coach 719, utilizing Dwight Austin s V-drive; they continued inside well-known employ till the 1990s, though smaller V-configuration machines inside a straight inside "T-drive" configuration became popular inside the 1960s. They were equally utilized inside the British Leyland Atlantean plus inside various transit buses plus most contemporary double decker buses. They have equally been popular by Scania, MAN, Volvo plus Renault s bus divisions.
Single overhead camshaft is a shape inside that 1 camshaft is located in the cylinder head. In an inline engine, this signifies there is 1 camshaft inside the head, while inside an engine with multiple cylinder head, including a V engine or perhaps a horizontally-opposed engine --- there are 2 camshafts: 1 per cylinder bank.
In the SOHC shape, the camshaft operates the valves straight, traditionally through a bucket tappet; or through an intermediary rocker arm. SOHC cylinder heads are cheaper with manufacture than DOHC cylinder heads. Timing belt substitution is simpler because there are fewer camshaft drive sprockets which should be aligned throughout the substitution process.
A World War I-era Hispano-Suiza V8 aviation engine, that chosen single overhead camshafts for every cylinder bank.
In the early era of the liquid-cooled aircraft engine field, single overhead camshaft structure machines were inside existence throughout the First World War, for both the Allies as well as the Central Powers. The Hispano-Suiza 8 --- a V8 engine, crafted by Marc Birkigt inside the Allied camp, as well as the series of Mercedes inline-six aviation motors, culminating inside the Mercedes D.III for the German Empire, both selected rotary shaft-driven single overhead camshaft valvetrain systems, plus were amidst the many prominent aviation powerplants of the First World War era. The late-war Liberty L-12 --- a V12 engine configuration American aviation engine additionally employed the general Mercedes D-series single overhead camshaft shape, based generally found on the later D.IIIa s drive program from rocker box with valvestem.
SOHC designs provide reduced complexity compared with overhead valve designs --- whenever selected for multivalve cylinder heads, inside that every cylinder has over 2 valves. An illustration of a SOHC shape utilizing shim plus bucket valve change was the engine installed inside the Hillman Imp; a tiny, early 1960s two-door saloon vehicle with a back installed aluminium-alloy engine based found on the Coventry Climax FWMA race machines. Exhaust plus inlet manifolds were both found on the same side of the engine block. This did, but, provide good access with the spark plugs.
In the early 1980s, Toyota plus Volkswagen Group furthermore selected a straight actuated, SOHC parallel valve configuration with 2 valves for every cylinder. The Toyota program selected hydraulic tappets, whilst the Volkswagen program selected bucket tappets with shims for valve clearance change. Of all valvetrain systems, this might be the smallest complex configuration potential.
A double overhead camshaft valvetrain design is characterised by 2 camshafts situated in the cylinder head, 1 running the consumption valves plus 1 working the exhaust valves. This shape reduces valvetrain inertia over a SOHC engine, because the rocker arms are reduced inside size or eliminated. A DOHC shape allows a wider angle between consumption plus exhaust valves than SOHC machines. This could let for a less limited airflow at high engine speeds. DOHC with a multivalve shape furthermore enables the maximum location of the spark connect, which, improves combustion efficiency. Engines that have multiple bank of cylinders with 2 camshafts inside total stay SOHC; except every cylinder bank has 2 camshafts --- these latter are DOHC, plus are frequently well-known as quad cam . The term twin cam is imprecise, however, usually usually refer with a DOHC engine. Many producers utilize a SOHC inside a multivalve shape. Additionally, not all DOHC motors are multivalve machines. DOHC cylinder heads existed before multivalve cylinder heads appeared inside the 1980s. Today, but, DOHC is often confused with multivalve heads, because most contemporary DOHC machines have between 3 plus five valves per cylinder --- yet multivalve plus DOHC are separate distinctions.
Internally, the cylinder head has passages called ports or tracts for the fuel/air mixture with travel with the inlet valves within the consumption manifold, as well as for exhaust gases with travel within the exhaust valves with the exhaust manifold. In a water-cooled engine, the cylinder head additionally contains key ducts plus passages for the machines coolant - normally a mixture of water plus antifreeze - with facilitate the transfer of extra heat away within the head, plus consequently the engine for the most part.
In the overhead valve shape, the cylinder head contains the poppet valves as well as the spark plugs, together with tracts or ports for the inlet plus exhaust gases. The procedure of the valves is initiated by the engine s camshaft, that is sited in the cylinder block, as well as its time of procedure is sent with the valves pushrods, plus then rocker arms installed about a rocker shaft - the rocker arms plus shaft furthermore being found in the cylinder head.
In the overhead camshaft shape, the cylinder head contains the valves, spark plugs plus inlet/exhaust tracts simply like the OHV engine, however the camshaft is today moreover contained in the cylinder head. The camshaft can be seated centrally between every offset row of inlet plus exhaust valves, plus nevertheless equally using rocker arms, or the camshaft can be seated straight above the valves eliminating the rocker arms plus using bucket tappets.
Engine configuration is an technology expression for the design of the main components of the reciprocating piston internal combustion engine. These components are the cylinders plus crankshafts inside specific and, occasionally, the camshaft.
Many apparently standard names for designs are historical, arbitrary, or overlapping. As an example, the 180 V engine is really called considering the crankshaft is associated with a V engine more carefully than it really is connected with additional opposed-piston machines including the boxer. Others would consider it a flat engine due to its form.
The names W engine plus rotary engine have every been employed for a number of unconnected designs. The H-4 plus H-6 machines yielded by Subaru are not H motors at all, nevertheless boxer motors. The Subaru H-4 plus H-6 designs are thus called considering they are horizontally opposed pistons.
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