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Mercedes Benz A Class Petrol Diesel 1998 2004 Haynes Service Repair Manual

The Mercedes-Benz A-Class is a compact automobile yielded by the German car maker Mercedes-Benz. The initially generation was introduced inside 1997, the next generation model appeared inside late 2004, as well as the 3rd generation model was established inside 2012.

Originally established just because a five-door hatchback inside 1997, the 2nd generation W169 introduced a three-door hatchback with sit six inches under the five-door. In the markets which the A-Class is or has been available inside, it has represented the entry level model of Mercedes-Benz. Having grown by 68 cm because the authentic model, the 2012 A-class is today longer than the first-generation B-class.The wide most of front-wheel-drive cars now employ a transversely installed engine with "end-on" installed transmission, driving the front wheels through driveshafts connected through continual velocity joints. This configuration was created common by the 1967 Simca 1100, as well as the 1969 Fiat 128. The 1959 Mini, when a pioneering transverse front-wheel-drive car, utilized a significantly different arrangement with all the transmission inside the sump.

Volvo Cars has turned its whole lineup following the 900 series with front-wheel drive. Swedish designers at the organization have mentioned which transversely installed machines enable for more crumple zone location inside a head about collision. American car producers are today shifting greater models back with rear-wheel drive. There were comparatively limited rear-wheel-drive vehicles advertised inside North America by the early 1990s; Chrysler s auto line-up was completely front-wheel drive by 1990. GM followed suit inside 1996 where its B-body line was phased out, where its sports vehicles were truly the only RWDs marketed; by the early 2000s, the Chevrolet Corvette plus Cadillac Catera were truly the only RWD vehicles available from General Motors till the introduction of the Sigma platform.
Launched at the Frankfurt Motor Show inside the autumn of 1997, the W168 A-Class was very unusual for Mercedes-Benz featuring a front wheel drive design plus unusual tall yet brief body. One innovation of the W168 had been a frontal-impact consumption program called the "Sandwich". In the event of the violent frontal impact, the engine plus transmission might slide beneath the floor under the pedals instead of entering the passenger compartment.

This was the initially complete outdoor crafted by Coventry University trained Steve Mattin, for that he was called Autocar magazine s Designer of the Year . Earlier, Mattin had largely worked about shape for the W210 E-Class inside 1991. Concurrent with the W168, he tailored the outdoor of the W220 S-Class. The final shape freeze happened inside January 1995, at 32 months before August 1997 begin of manufacturing.

The W168 became infamous inside 1997 following turning over throughout the conventional "elk test" done by the Swedish vehicle publication Teknikens Vrld. According with the report, the W168 overturned whenever manoeuvring with avoid the "elk". Mercedes initially denied the condition, yet then took the surprising step of recalling all units available with date plus suspending sales for 3 months till the issue was solved by adding electronic stability control plus changing the suspension. The business invested DM 2.5 billion inside developing the auto, with a further DM 300 million with fix it.
Interior

Between 1997 plus 2004, 1.1 million initially generation A-Class models had been available.

The A-Class was facelifted inside 2001, with minor changes with the front plus back bumper shape as well as the addition of the hot 170 mm longer wheelbase adaptation. It was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show.
All A-Class models are driven by four-cylinder motors, with 1.4 L plus 1.6 L petrol models at release, followed by 2 versions of the 1.7 L diesel engine. In 1999, a greater 1.9 L petrol model was added, with all the 2.1 the last W168 adaptation with be established inside 2002.
Overhead camshaft, commonly abbreviated with OHC, is a valvetrain configuration that places the camshaft of a internal combustion engine of the reciprocating sort in the cylinder heads plus forces the valves or lifters inside a more direct way compared with overhead valves plus pushrods.
Compared with OHV pushrod systems with all the same quantity of valves, the reciprocating components of the OHC program are fewer plus have a lower total mass. Though the program which forces the camshafts can be more complex, many engine producers accept which added complexity because a trade-off for greater engine performance plus better shape flexibility. The fundamental cause for the OHC valvetrain is the fact that it provides an heighten inside the machines ability with exchange induction plus exhaust gases. Another performance benefit is gained because a happen of the greater optimised port designs created potential with overhead camshaft designs. With no intrusive pushrods, the overhead camshaft cylinder head shape may use straighter ports of more advantageous cross-section plus size. The OHC shape enables high engine speeds, which can strengthen force output for a provided torque.

The OHC valvetrain program can be driven by the crankshaft utilizing the same techniques because an OHV program, in practice, lighter fat plus maintenance-free techniques are more popular. These techniques include utilizing a rubber/kevlar toothed timing belt, duplex or single row roller stores, or inside less usual situations, gears. Early Ducati motorcycle machines selected shafts with bevel gears with drive the camshafts inside their OHC motors.

In combination with numerous valves per cylinder, countless OHC motors now employ varying valve timing with boost efficiency plus energy. OHC equally inherently enables better engine speeds over similar cam-in-block designs, because a happen of getting lower valvetrain mass.
DaimlerChrysler invested EUR 900 million inside developing the Rastatt plant where the A-Class is yielded, plus built 1600 new jobs. A further 600 persons function inside the workplace building at the plant site.

Mercedes-Benz started W168 creation about 17 February 1999 at its new Brazilian center inside Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. The Brazilian plant was the business s initial factory inside South America focused on passenger vehicles, with an investment of USD 840 million plus 10,000 employees. The factory initially yielded A-Class plus C-Class models, assembling them from pieces produced inside Germany. The target for the vehicles was territorial markets with modifications prepared with the vehicles with suit regional conditions, like a security for the engine base. On 15 August 2005 the factory stopped manufacturing of A-Class vehicles.
For the A-class automobile has suffered because 1 model tipped over throughout a test drive inside Sweden last month. Barely 24 hours following winning its prize, Daimler-Benz, that makes Mercedes vehicles, mentioned it might temporarily stop creation of the A-class due to worries regarding the vehicle s protection. No more is prepared for 3 months whilst a fresh chassis has been yielded plus fitted with existing models. The expense of the delay is DM300m.

All this might be a monumental embarrassment with Daimler-Benz. The A-class, that expense DM2.5 billion with develop, was conceived with take Daimler into the mass marketplace at a time whenever its employers were worried which heavier vehicles were going from fashion. The move was dangerous. Daimler has been capable with break from the deluxe slot through its C-class models, that are synonymous with the executive models of Ford plus General Motors inside Europe, nevertheless with all the added cachet of the Mercedes star found on the radiator. Some industry folk felt it didn't have to broaden its appeal even further.

A 2nd, less apparent risk with a fast famed for the technology was it can create revenue building tiny vehicles of the same impeccable standard because its bigger ones. If Daimler cannot fix the A-class quick, the standing of the model is destroyed plus which of the business is forever dented, forcing it with retreat with its niche because a creator of deluxe vehicles.
In this section

Russia champs at the drill-bit
Mercedes bends
Engaged
On a earned along with a prayer
Where there s a perfectly...
Building with Bechtel
Technology s archangel

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Such a fate was unimaginable whenever the A-class was unveiled at the Frankfurt Motor Show inside September. "One day all tiny vehicles is like this," gushed a commentator. "A turning point inside the industry," opined the Financial Times, with unconscious irony. That may nonetheless be true, yet just when the small Mercedes bubble automobile will negotiate a limited awkward bends initially.

An unconventional little auto without bonnet as well as the back wheels at the extreme corners of the body, the A-class is because brief because Ford s little Fiesta, yet has the roominess of the much bigger Mondeo. To meet protection rules, the engine is slung involving the front wheels plus crafted with slip beneath the passenger s feet inside a crash, whilst the raised floor shields against a side impact. Thanks with these innovations, the A-class looked certain with become European Car of the Year.

However then a reporter from a Swedish motoring log rolled it over when operating an abrupt swerve, well-known as the "moose test"---the type of thing a driver would should do about Sweden s wintry nation roads with avoid a big beast. At initially, Daimler tried with brazen it out, arguing which any tiny auto might flip inside these circumstances. However whenever tv footage of the vehicle tilting about with 2 wheels added drama with pictures of the overturned car, German buyers started with cancel their orders.

Daimler then guaranteed to match different tyres, blaming the auto s issue about those initially provided by Goodyear, much to this business s indignation. It also mentioned it might remember vehicles plus fit for free an optional bit of drive-control electronics with enhance handling. However because additional motoring journals repeated the test plus came up with all the same results, more orders dried up.
The evasive manoeuvre test , more commonly recognised as the moose test or elk test , is conducted with determine how effectively a certain car evades a suddenly appearing obstacle.

Forms of the test have been done inside Sweden because the 1970s. The colloquial plus internationally better-known name for the test was coined inside 1997 by the German Sddeutsche Zeitung following the Swedish engine magazine Teknikens Vrld flipped a Mercedes-Benz A-Class inside a test ostensibly prepared with measure the vehicle s ability with avoid hitting a moose.

In fact, the test is somewhat designed with simulate, for illustration, a reversing automobile or perhaps a child rushing out onto the road. This really is considering it really is more probably which the moose can continue over the road than stay inside spot or turn back, generating it more advisable with brake hard plus try with slip behind the animal than with swerve inside front of it.
In 1997, the journalist Robert Collin within the engine magazine Teknikens Vrld overturned the unique Mercedes-Benz A-Class inside the moose test, whilst a Trabant---a much elder, plus generally mocked auto within the past German Democratic Republic---managed it well. The Dacia Logan appeared initially with fail the test, however, a later research concluded which excessive testing had used the auto s wheels with failure.

On the event of being interviewed for an post inside the Sddeutsche Zeitung, Collin tried with explain this test by the illustration of a evasive maneuver for a moose found on the road. It was shortly called Elchtest.
Eventually, about November 11th, following regarding 2% of the A-class s 100,000 orders had been cancelled, Daimler decided with acknowledge which the vehicle was dangerous inside extreme conditions. Jrgen Schrempp, the fast s chairman, has mentioned the firm s technicians have today found the "optimum solution"---albeit 1 which can cut working profit by DM100m this year plus DM200m upcoming year. The unique chassis usually lower the body, boost stability of the axles plus need tyres which hold the road better.

The organization states which this investment is necessary when it's with stick to its approach of moving into tiny, mass-production cars---partly with receive young motorists into the Mercerdes-buying habit.Daimler employers properly argued which they might need to enter the small-car marketplace with a bang: therefore the unconventional shape of the A-class along with a premium price of DM30,000. This significant cost was required considering Mercedes reckoned it might possibly market hardly 250,000 models a year, very low for a amount auto. Even thus, its profit margin is thin---and this week got even leaner.

Daimler s issue is the fact that its little auto should reside about the excellent standing of its bigger saloons bearing the well-known Mercedes badge. Now the protection plus technology of the A-class have been found wanting. Small, light vehicles want fancy suspension, the more thus when they have a significant floor plus excellent centre of gravity to support the engine. The foreshortened A-class can be a magic of compactness. However the technology with create it secure can create it more costly. If it does, Mercedes s tiny auto could become a big catastrophe.
Diesel-powered vehicles usually have a greater gas economy than similar gasoline motors plus provide less greenhouse fuel emission. Their better economy is due with the high vitality per-litre content of diesel gas as well as the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. While petrodiesel s high density results inside high greenhouse fuel emissions per litre compared with gasoline, the 20--40% greater gas economy attained by contemporary diesel-engined vehicles offsets the high per-litre emissions of greenhouse gases, along with a diesel-powered car emits 10--20 % less greenhouse fuel than similar gasoline cars. Biodiesel-powered diesel motors provide significantly improved emission reductions compared with petrodiesel or gasoline-powered motors, when keeping almost all of the gas economy blessings over traditional gasoline-powered vehicles. But, the improved compression ratios indicate there are improved emissions of oxides of nitrogen from diesel motors. This really is compounded by biological nitrogen inside biodiesel with create NOx emissions the leading downside of diesel vs gasoline motors.

Diesel exhaust is yielded inside diesel machines, where conditions vary considerably from spark-ignition machines. Diesel engine energy is straight controlled by the gas provide, not by controlling the air provide because inside traditional gasoline machines. Whenever the engine runs at idle, enough oxygen is present with burn the gas completely. Diesel motors just create extensive amounts of smoke whenever running without enough oxygen. This really is commonly mitigated inside a turbocharged diesel engine.

Diesel exhaust is acknowledged for the characteristic smell, however this has mostly disappeared inside latest years following reductions inside sulfur content.

Diesel exhaust is believed with contain poisonous air contaminants plus is indexed because a potential carcinogen for people by the IARC inside group 1. Diesel gas furthermore contains fine particles associated with damaging wellness effects. Diesel exhaust pollution was thought with account for about 1 quarter of the pollution inside the air inside past years, along with a significant share of disorder caused by automotive pollution.

The lean-burning nature of diesel motors as well as the excellent temperatures plus pressures of the combustion task cause substantial manufacturing of nitrogen oxides, plus delivers a distinctive challenge inside reducing these compounds. Modern on-road diesel motors usually employ selective catalytic reduction to satisfy emissions regulations, because alternative techniques including exhaust fuel recirculation cannot adequately minimize NOx to satisfy new specifications inside various jurisdictions. However, the fine particulate matter has traditionally been of better concern inside the realm of diesel exhaust, because it presents different wellness concerns plus is seldom yielded inside immense quantities by spark-ignition machines.

Diesel motors make quite small carbon monoxide because they burn the gas inside extra air even at full weight, where point the number of gas injected per cycle remains regarding 50 percent lean of stoichiometric.
Drawing about over 50 years of experience inside the development plus creation of automatic transmissions, Mercedes-Benz ventured into unique technical territory with all the 7G-DCT double clutch transmission: the fresh program is an automated three-shaft guide transmission consisting of 2 subtransmissions, every with its own clutch. Both actuation of the clutches plus gear shifting happen totally automatically plus without any interruption inside tractive force. This enables a especially comfortable however, nevertheless dynamic mode of driving.
Thanks with its 7 gears it has an extremely big spread of about 7.99. This signifies a really brief transmission ratio is accessible whenever moving off about an uphill slope with a significant payload, for illustration, when throughout sailing the engine speed is lowered considerably. The efficiency of the transmission causes a 9 percent improvement inside gas expenditure compared with the CVT employed inside the A-Class with date, plus betters the expenditure with a manual transmission.
At a size of 367 millimetres along with a fat of 86 kilograms, the 7G-DCT is much more compact plus lighter than the transmissions inside this torque class that have been accessible available with date. The clutches take the shape of oil-cooled multi-disc clutches. The specifically developed hydraulic fluid is actively cooled, therefore guaranteeing correct working of the transmission even below extreme conditions, inspite of the comparatively low filling amount of six litres.Excess engine heat could moreover be moved with the transmission, which
improves its efficiency.
For the very first time about this kind of device, the transmission is provided with oil by 2 oil pumps -- 1 mechanical plus 1 electrical. The electrical pump maintains the oil stress whenever the engine is turned off through the start/stop function. This signifies which the transmission is instantly operational whenever the engine is restarted as well as the car may move off again without any delay. Additionally, the electrical pump can help the mechanical pump whenever peak plenty apply, allowing a more compact plus effective shape for the mechanical pump.
Another new feature is electrical activation of the hydraulics for the parking lock, that is secured by mechanical signifies. This "park by wire" function allows the transmission selector lever with be placed because desired: it really is found inside the shape of the steering column lever found on the proper behind the steering wheel inside the A-Class. In combination with all the electrical parking brake, extra area has therefore been built inside the centre system for extra stowage facilities.




A-Class 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
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