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NEW - paperback
Australian Ford Laser & Mazda 323 / Astina 1989 - 1994 Owners Service & Repair Manual covers:
The Ford Laser was a compact car which was offered by Ford in Asia, Oceania, and parts of South America, and Africa. It has generally been available as sedan or hatchback, although convertible, wagon and pick-up versions have also been available in different markets.The Ford Laser had been a restyled form of the Familia/323 designs created by Mazda in Japan from 1980 onwards. Ford had acquired a 25% share in Mazda in 1979.
In Australia, New Zealand and European countries where Ford was seen as a 'local' brand, the Laser outsold its Mazda twin, but in neighbouring Asian countries, such as Malaysia, Hong and Singapore Kong, as well as Japan itself, the reverse was the case. However, pooling resources with Mazda allowed Ford to keep a foothold in the region. This was also the case in South America, Africa, and the Caribbean, where the Laser was also sold, in many cases being locally assembled. The KA Laser, built under permit from Mazda, was introduced in March 1981. In January 1983 it underwent a facelift to become the KB. Light changes were made to the rear, while the front was redesigned in a more modern style, aligning it with Ford's corporate look of the era. Initially sold just with the 1.3, the little 1.1 motor was never available in Australia. Later, 1.5 liter versions had been added, eventually even a turbocharged version.
Apart from being built in some Lasers, Japan and Australia were also assembled in New Zealand. New Zealand-built Laser hatchbacks were available with the 1.1 (Ritz), 1.3 (GL), and 1.5 (Sports) machines, while the Laser sedan (Ghia, L) was not available with the 1.1. In some countries, such as Australia, the four-door saloon bodystyle was marketed as the "Ford Meteor".
Mazda E1, 41 kW (55 hp) 1.1 L Carb 8V SOHC ('Ritz', 'L', and 'GL' New Zealand models)
Mazda E3, 49 kW (66 hp) 1.3 L Carb 8V SOHC ('L' and 'GL' models)
Mazda E5, 54 kW (72 hp) 1.5 L Carb 8V SOHC ('L', 'GL' and 'GHIA' designs)
Mazda E5, 59 kW (79 hp) 1.5 L Twin Carb 8V SOHC ('Sports' designs)
Mazda E5T, 78 kW (105 hp) 1.5 L Carb 8V SOHC Turbo (limited edition 'Turbo' designs)
Mazda E5T, 85 kW (114 hp) 1.5 L EFI 8V SOHC Turbo ('Turbo' Japan designs)
Introduced in 1981, Ford Meteor was the name given to the sedan version of the Laser.
When the Meteor was released in Australia in 1981 as the GA series, it replaced the larger Cortina, although this was a temporary measure prior to the Telstar was introduced.
The Meteor grille differed slightly and had been available on one other model: a home-market Mazda Familia sedan. Changing the Laser's amber indicators had been white ones, as well as the grille had more of an "egg-crate" pattern than the plain black slats of the Laser. The Meteor also had larger headlights than the Laser, which had smaller sized ones "sunken" into the bodyshell. In Australia, it was just available with a 1.5 litre engine at launch, in GL and Ghia trims—the 1.1 or 1.3 were not offered. Obviously, it had a hard job replacing the Cortina, which had machines starting at 2.0 litre, up to a 4.1 litre six-cylinderan in addition to a station wagon choice.
The mid-term facelifted model of 1983, coded GB, brought the range closer together, though Meteors continued as a separate and slightly more premium line.
A station wagon, also called an estate car and an estate, is an automotive body-style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a provided passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via third or fifth door (the liftgate or tailgate), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design — to include B, A, and C-pillar, as well as a D-pillar. Facility wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume.
The United states Heritage Dictionary defines a station wagon as "an automobile with one or more rows of removable or folding seats behind the driver and no luggage compartment but an area behind the seats into which suitcases, parcels, etc., can be packed through a tailgate."
When a model range includes multiple body styles, these types of as sedan, hatchback and station wagon, the models typically share their platform, drivetrain and bodywork forward of the A-pillar. In 1969, Popular Mechanics said, "Station wagon-style ... follows that of the production sedan of which it is the counterpart. Most are on the same wheelbase, provide the same transmission and engine options, as well as the same comfort and convenience options."
Facility wagons have evolved from their early use as specific vehicles to carry people and luggage to and from a train station, and also have been marketed globally.
The 1985 KC Laser/GC Meteor was the model's first major redesign. All body styles had been carried over, with the addition of a station wagon (badged as "Meteor", like the sedan) from 1986. A brand new "TX3" variant, which was at the top of the "Laser" models in requirements degree and designated 'KC2', replaced the "Sport" variant from the KB series. Unlike the Sport, the TX3 was only available as a three-door. The "L" & "GL" designs were no longer available as a three-door. A notable change had been the introduction of machines capable of running on 91RON Unleaded petrol (this became mandatory in Australia from 1986). The 'E5' 1.5-litre SOHC carburettored engine that was optional on GL, and standard on Ghia in the KB series was replaced with the new 'B6' 1.6-litre I4 SOHC. For the first time, Electronic Fuel Injection was available as an option on Ghia models, and was standard on TX3 models. Buyers who ordered automatic transmission with this motor received an electronically-controlled 4-speed unit, which was quite advanced for a small car in 1985. The 'B3' I4 SOHC 1.3-litre engine was standard on the "L" (hatch-only – the wagon had a 1.6-litre engine). The 1.6-litre engine was standard on Ghia, GL & TX3, though some early GL models were equipped with a 1.5-litre SOHC carburettored.
KC model range:
Meteor L (wagon only)
In October 1987, Ford introduced a facelift of the KC series, the KE. There had been a number of notable changes with the introduction of the KE. The "Meteor" name had been dropped from the wagon and sedan body designs, meaning they had been now badged as "Laser", like the hatchback variants. The TX3 was also now available with a turbocharged engine and All-Wheel-Drive as options. The TX3 Turbo with AWD is today very rare and highly sought after. Another interesting fact is that the AWD was fully imported from Japan, while all other designs in the Laser range were manufactured locally in the Sydney suburb of Homebush.
The KE is easy to distinguish from the earlier KC, by different grilles, tail, headlights lights, body-side bonnet, mouldings, front guards, and on some models, tires. The instrument and dashboard group got new graphics, as well as the interior was available in slightly different colour shades to the KC. In mid-1989, in preparation for a brand new ADR (Australian Design Rule) to come into effect in 1990, all models were fitted with a high-mount rear stop lamp as standard. When the redesigned KF Laser was introduced in March 1990, the wagon continued in a sole GL specification, with small upgrades until 1994, when Australian production of the Laser ceased.
The "L" is rather uncommon, as it was primarily directed at the budget or fleet buyer. It had silver-painted 13" steel wheels, with no centre caps, a large analogue clock in the instrument cluster, no passenger-part rear-view mirror, vinyl interior trim, no body side mouldings, no rear windscreen wiper, and the folding rear seat had been only one-piece. The stereo was additionally AM-only and had no cassette player. Air conditioning was not available. The only engine on offer was the 1.3-litre engine, with 4-speed manual transmission (no automated was available). The "L" wagon had the same level of trim, except the 1.3-litre engine had been replaced with the 1.6-litre unit but still with 4-speed transmission and no automatic available.
The "GL" was the most popular model. It featured the same silver-painted 13" steel wheels as the "L" but with satin chrome half-width centre caps (only addressing the centre of the wheel), a digital clock on the top of the dashboard, fabric interior trim, grey body side mouldings, a rear windscreen wiper, grey beaver and tailgate panel garnishes and 50/50 split-fold rear seat. The stereo was an analogue-tuned AM/FM unit with a basic cassette player. Air conditioning was optional as a dealer-fit accessory. Energy was provided by a 1.6-litre engine, with 4-speed manual transmission (5-speed manual or 3-speed automatic was optional). Wagon and sedan came standard with 5-speed transmission.
The Ghia was the luxury model. It had black 14" steel wheels with full-size plastic wheel covers, power steering, body-coloured rear-view mirrors and bumpers, velour interior trim, tachometer, centre console with Ghia emblem, lockable motorist, glovebox's seat with lumbar support and height adjust, storage drawer underneath the front passenger seat, full-size interior door trims, vanity mirror in passenger sunvisor, ticket owner in driver's sunvisor, felt interior hoodlining and sunvisors, rear headrests, additional warning lights in the tool cluster, main locking with illuminated driver's door lock barrel, remote exterior mirrors, front home map pockets, front seatback pockets, extra reading lamps, chrome insert strips in the body side mouldings and bumpers, red tailgate garnish and orange beaver panel garnish. Air conditioning and power windows were optional. The stereo had been a digitally-tuned AM/FM unit, which featured a cassette player with Dolby enhanced sound. The 1.6-litre engine was fitted as standard, with EFI optional (standard on wagon), with either 5-speed manual or 3-speed automatic transmission (EFI automatic was 4-speed).
The TX3 was the Laser 'flagship'. It came standard with 14" satin-chrome alloy wheels, recreations cloth interior trim, red insert strips in the body side mouldings and bumpers, black tailgate and beaver panel garnishes, semi-bucket seats with adjustable seat height, right back and lumbar automobile, support fade interior lamps, and all other Ghia appointings. EFI and A/C was standard, and automatic transmission was not available. The TX3 also had a unique front fascia with quad the parker and headlights lamps incorporated into the indicator lenses (L/GL/Ghia had the parkers inside the primary headlight unit) and two-tone paint.
Halfway through KE production, Ford introduced two limited edition versions, known as "Redline", and "Livewire". The Redline was based on the GL hatch, while the Livewire was based on the GL sedan and hatch. The Redline featured the TX3's alloy wheels, two-tone paint and red inserts in the body-side mouldings and bumpersan atmosphere conditioning, and a tachometer. The Livewire showcased yellow inserts in the body side mouldings and bumpers, air conditioning, and a tachometer. Both models had 5-speed manual transmission (as opposed to the standard 4-speed) as standard, with 3-speed automatic transmission as an option.
KE model range;
Laser L - Hatch or wagon
Laser GL - Hatch, sedan or wagon
Laser Ghia - Hatch, sedan or wagon
Laser TX3 Turbo
Laser TX3 Turbo 4WD
Mazda E3, 49 kW (66 hp) 1.3 L Carb 8V SOHC ('L' and 'GL' models)
Mazda E5T, 85 kW (114 hp) 1.5 L EFI 8V SOHC Turbo ('Cabriolet' Japan models)
Mazda B6, 53 kW (71 hp) 1.6 L Carb 8V SOHC ('GL' and 'GHIA' models)
Mazda B6, 62 kW (83 hp) 1.6 L EFI 8V SOHC (option on 'GHIA' standard and models on 'TX3' models)
Mazda B6T, 100 kW (130 hp) 1.6 L EFI 16V DOHC Turbo ('TX3 Turbo' and 'Turbo 4WD' models)
The Meteor name was discontined in Australia in 1987, with "Laser" now used for wagons and sedans as well as for hatchbacks. The title did survive in South Africa, where it was used from 1986 to 1995. In addition to the 1.3L carb, 1.6L carb and 1.6L EFi machines, South African models of the Laser and Meteor also gained the Mazda FE-DOHC EFi 16-valve engine with 146 hp (109 kW; 148 PS) and 136 lbÃ�ï¿½Ã�Â·ft (184 NÃ�ï¿½Ã�Â·m) from 1991 to 1993.
Mazda B3, 47 kW (63 hp) 1.3 L Carb 16V SOHC ('XL')
Mazda B6-2E, 64 kW (86 hp) 1.6 L Carb 16V SOHC ('L', 'XL', 'GL', 'Horizon', 'Livewire' and 'Indy' models)
Mazda BP SOHC aka B8, 76 kW (102 hp) 1.8 L F/I 16V SOHC ('GHIA', 'S' and 'GLi' models)
Mazda BP DOHC, 92 kW (123 hp) 1.8 L F/I 16V DOHC ('TX3 non-turbo' models)
Mazda BPT, 117 kW (157 hp) 1.8 L F/I 16V DOHC Turbo ('Turbo 4WD' models)
The Japanese built KJ Laser represented a major change in design; looking very different to the earlier KH model. The new KJ Laser was introduced in 1994 with facelifts, engine and variants driveline improvements continuing up until the last of the KJ series were released in 1998. The KJ Laser was the first Laser manufactured wholly in Japan, following Ford Australia's decision to close their Homebush plant. However, the KJ was disappointing in sales numbers mainly because of the smaller Festiva and other cheaper Korean models to which many conservative buyers flocked.
Mazda B6, 80 1.6L, kW, 16V, DOHC ('LXi' models)
Mazda BP, 92 kW, 1.8L, 16V, DOHC (some 'LXi' and 'GLXi' designs)
Ford Australia is the Australian subsidiary of Ford Motor Company which is an American business and was founded in Victoria, Geelong, in 1925 as an outpost of Ford Motor business of Canada, Limited. At that time, Ford Canada was a separate company from Ford USA. Henry Ford had given the manufacturing rights to Ford in British Empire (subsequent Commonwealth) nations (excepting the UK) to Canadian investors.
Its very first items were Model Ts assembled from complete knock-down (CKD) kits provided by Ford of Canada. Nonetheless, it is best known in more recent times for having produced the Falcon, originally a U.S. model introduced in Australia in 1960, but adapted to Australian requirements and road conditions. Since the release of the XA model in 1972, Falcons have been fully Australian designed. It also produces a four-wheel-drive model called the Territory.
Ford Australia may be the only Australian car manufacturer which designs and manufactures its own unique high-volume engines.
In May 2013 Ford Australia announced that it would stop making cars after 88 years due to soaring manufacturing costs and plummeting sales. The carmaker released its annual financial report, which showed a loss of A1m dollars (Ã�ï¿½Ã�Â£90m/6m) after tax for the 2012 financial year. That follows a loss of A0m in 2011 and a total loss of A0m over the past five years. As a result 1,200 staff will lose their jobs.
The KN Laser was the last new shape of Laser to be introduced. Released in Australia in May 1999, the model range was almost completely identical to the Mazda 323 on which it was based, which was the first time since the KE Laser. In February 2001, the KN received a minor facelift and became the KQ Laser. The big news with the KQ Laser was the addition of a 2.0-litre 4-cylinder motor for the new top-spec "SR2", which was also the first sports-oriented Laser variant in almost five years, since the unpopular Laser Lynx was discontinued in 1996. A brand new "SR" level of trim, which sat below SR2 had been also introduced at this time. The KQ can be distinguished from the earlier KN, with a new grille with chrome moulding, new headlights, revised tail lights, different exterior colours, and slightly revised interiors. In March 2002, due to falling Ford, sales made one final attempt to restore the Laser's popularity to its former fame, by announcing small upgrades to the SR2, and added three new exterior colours to the range, being "Goldrush", "Red Revenge", and "Electric Blue". Three machines were available, a 1.6-litre that was fitted to the LXi, a 1.8-litre that was fitted to the GLXi & SR, and a 2.0-litre that was exclusive to the SR2. Despite Laser having a good reputation with customers in the marketplace, and many efforts from Ford to re-ignite interest in the model, it still failed to sell in reasonable numbers. In September 2002, Ford decided to discontinue the Laser in Australia, replacing it with the European-sourced Focus.
Laser LXi (Sedan or hatch)
Laser GLXi (hatch or Sedan)
Laser XRI (Hatch only)nzs sr2 2.0l
Laser SR (Hatch only)
Laser SR2 (Hatch only)
Mazda 1.8 L FP-DE DOHC I4 91 kW (122 hp) and 163 NÃ�ï¿½Ã�Â·m (120 ftÃ�ï¿½Ã�Â·lbf)
Mazda 2.0 L FS, 97 kW (130 hp) and 183 NÃ�ï¿½Ã�Â·m (135 ftÃ�ï¿½Ã�Â·lbf)
Mazda 2.0 L FS-ZE (2001 Sport 20)
1.6 L ZM-DE 72 kW (97 hp) and 145 NÃ�ï¿½Ã�Â·m (107 ftÃ�ï¿½Ã�Â·lbf)
The Laser replaced the rear-wheel-drive Escort in Australia in 1981. It was available as a hatchback, in both 3 door and 5 door varieties, as well as a 4 door sedan which was badged as the Meteor. Ford Australia advertised them as separate vehicles, supplying a worthy rival to Japanese designs like the Toyota Corolla; the Meteor nameplate was discontinued in Australia when the KE sedan was launched in 1987, but survived in South Africa until 1995.
Local manufacturing of the Laser in Australia ceased in 1994 whenever Ford closed its plant at Homebush in Sydney, and imported the model from Japan. The Laser was finally replaced by the Focus in 2002.
A turbocharger, or turbo, is a turbine driven forced induction device utilized to allow more power to be produced by an engine of a given size. A turbocharged engine can be more efficient and powerful than a obviously aspirated engine because the turbine forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone.
Turbochargers were originally understood as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers; nowadays the term "supercharger" is generally put on only mechanically driven forced induction devices. The key distinction between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that the latter is mechanically driven from the motor, often from a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine that is driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Compared to a mechanically-driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an motor which has both a turbocharger and supercharger.
In New Zealand, the Laser was sold as both hatchback and sedan, and was later assembled alongside the Mazda 323 at the Vehicle Assemblers of New Zealand (VANZ) plant in Wiri, Auckland in a joint venture between Ford New Zealand and Mazda. The KC/KE Laser wagon was also put together in your area, alongside its Mazda 323 equivalent, until 1996. When the plant shut in 1997, Ford dropped the Laser and introduced the Ford Escort hatchback and sedan, having already introduced the Escort wagon. It later on reintroduced the Laser in 1999, and was not replaced by the Focus until 2003.