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Ford Laser & Mazda 323 1990 - 1996 Haynes Owners Service & Repair Manual covers Ford Laser, Liata and Lynx KF, KH and KJ series, and Mazda 323, Astina and Protege BG and BA series.
The Ford Laser was a compact car which was sold by Ford in Asia, Oceania, and components of South America, and Africa. It has generally been available as sedan or hatchback, although convertible, wagon and pick-up versions have also been available in different markets.The Ford Laser was a restyled version of the Familia/323 models produced by Mazda in Japan from 1980 onwards. Ford haan obtained a 25% stake in Mazda in 1979.
In Australia, New Zealand and Europe where Ford was seen as a 'local' brand, the Laser outsold its Mazda twin, but in neighbouring Asian countries, such as Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong, as well as Japan itself, the reverse was the case. However, pooling resources with Mazda allowed Ford to maintain a foothold in the region. This was also the instance in South America, Africa, and the Caribbean, where the Laser waan additionally sold, in many cases being locally assembled. The KA Laser, built under license from Mazda, had been introduced in March 1981. In January 1983 it underwent a facelift to become the KB. Light changes were made to the rear, while the front was redesigned in a more modern style, aligning it with Ford's corporate look of the era. Originally sold only with the 1.3, the little 1.1 engine was never available in Australia. Later on, 1.5 liter variations were added, eventually even a turbocharged version.
Apart from being built in some Australia, Japan and Lasers had been additionally assembled in New Zealand. New Zealand-built Laser hatchbacks were available with the 1.1 (Ritz), 1.3 (GL), and 1.5 (Sports) engines, while the Laser sedan (L), Ghia had been not available with the 1.1. In some countries, such as Australia, the four-door saloon bodystyle was marketed as the "Ford Meteor".
Mazda E1, 41 kW (55 hp) 1.1 L Carb 8V SOHC ('Ritz', 'L', and 'GL' New Zealand models)
Mazda E3, 49 kW (66 hp) 1.3 L Carb 8V SOHC ('L' and 'GL' models)
Mazda E5, 54 kW (72 hp) 1.5 L Carb 8V SOHC ('L', 'GL' and 'GHIA' models)
Mazda E5, 59 kW (79 hp) 1.5 L Twin Carb 8V SOHC ('Sports' designs)
Mazda E5T, 78 kW (105 hp) 1.5 L Carb 8V SOHC Turbo (limited edition 'Turbo' models)
Mazda E5T, 85 kW (114 hp) 1.5 L EFI 8V SOHC Turbo ('Turbo' Japan models)
Introduced in 1981, Ford Meteor was the name given to the sedan version of the Laser.
Whenever the Meteor was released in Australia in 1981 as the GA series, it replaced the larger Cortina, although this was a temporary measure before the Telstar was introduced.
The Meteor grille differed slightly and had been available on one other model: a home-market Mazda Familia sedan. Replacing the Laser's amber indicators were white people, as well as the grille had more of an "egg-crate" pattern than the plain black slats of the Laser. The Meteor also had larger headlights compared to Laser, which had smaller ones "sunken" into the bodyshell. In Australia, it was only available with a 1.5 litre engine at launch, in GL and Ghia trims—the 1.1 or 1.3 were not offered. Naturally, it had a hard job replacing the Cortina, which had engines beginning at 2.0 litre, as much as a 4.1 litre six-cylinder, in addition to a station wagon choice.
The mid-term facelifted model of 1983, coded GB, introduced the range closer together, though Meteors continued as a separate and slightly more premium line.
A station wagon, also called an estate car and a property, is an automotive body-style variation of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a provided passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via third or fifth door (the tailgate or liftgate), instead of a trunk lid. The body style transforms a standard three-box design into a two-box design — to include B, the, and C-pillar, in addition to a D-pillar. Station wagons can flexibly reconfigure their interior volume via fold-down rear seats to prioritize either passenger or cargo volume.
The American Heritage Dictionary describes a station wagon as "an automobile with one or more rows of foldable or removable seats behind the motorist and no luggage compartment but an area behind the seats into which suitcases, parcels, etc., can be loaded through a tailgate."
Whenever a model range includes multiple body designs, such as sedan, hatchback and station wagon, the models typically share their bodywork, drivetrain and platform forward of the A-pillar. In 1969, Popular Mechanics said, "Station wagon-style ... follows that of the production sedan of which it is the counterpart. Many are on the same wheelbase, offer the same transmission and engine options, and the same convenience and comfort options."
Station wagons have evolved from their early use as specialized vehicles to carry luggage and people to and from a train station, and have been sold worldwide.
The 1985 KC Laser/GC Meteor was the model's first major redesign. All human body styles had been carried over, with the addition of a section wagon (badged as "Meteor", like the sedan) from 1986. A new "TX3" variant, which was at the top of the "Laser" models in specification level and designated 'KC2', replaced the "Sport" variant from the KB series. Unlike the Sport, the TX3 had been only available as a three-door. The "L" & "GL" models were no longer available as a three-door. A notable change was the introduction of engines capable of running on 91RON Unleaded petrol (this became mandatory in Australia from 1986). The 'E5' 1.5-litre SOHC carburettored motor which was optional on GL, and standard on Ghia in the KB series was replaced with the new 'B6' 1.6-litre I4 SOHC. For the first time, Electronic Fuel Injection was available as an option on Ghia models, and was standard on TX3 models. Shoppers who ordered automatic transmission with this particular motor got an electronically-controlled 4-speed unit, which was quite advanced for a small car in 1985. The 'B3' I4 SOHC 1.3-litre motor was standard on the "L" (hatch-only – the wagon had a 1.6-litre engine). The 1.6-litre engine had been standard on Ghia, GL & TX3, though some early GL models were equipped with a 1.5-litre SOHC carburettored.
KC model range:
Meteor L (wagon only)
In October 1987, Ford introduced a facelift of the KC series, the KE. There were a number of notable modifications with the introduction of the KE. The "Meteor" name was dropped from the wagon and sedan body styles, meaning they had been now badged as "Laser", like the hatchback variants. The TX3 had been additionally today available with a turbocharged engine and All-Wheel-Drive as options. The TX3 Turbo with AWD is now very rare and highly sought after. Another interesting fact is that the AWD was fully brought in from Japan, while all other designs in the Laser range were manufactured locally in the Sydney suburb of Homebush.
The KE is easy to distinguish from the earlier KC, by different grilles, headlights, tail lights, body-side mouldings, bonnet, front guards, and on some models, wheels. The dashboard and instrument group received brand new graphics, and the interior was available in slightly different colour shades to the KC. In mid-1989, in preparation for a brand new ADR (Australian Design Rule) to come into effect in 1990, all models were fitted with a high-mount rear stop lamp as standard. Whenever the redesigned KF Laser had been introduced in March 1990, the wagon continued in a sole GL specification, with small improvements until 1994, when Australian production of the Laser ceased.
The "L" is quite rare, as it had been primarily aimed at the budget or fleet buyer. It had silver-painted 13" steel wheels, with no centre caps, a big analogue clock in the instrument cluster, no passenger-side rear-view mirror, vinyl interior trim, no body side mouldings, no rear windscreen wiper, as well as the folding rear seat was only one-piece. The stereo was additionally AM-only and had no cassette player. Air conditioning was not available. The only engine on offer was the 1.3-litre engine, with 4-speed manual transmission (no automatic was available). The "L" wagon had the same amount of trim, except the 1.3-litre motor was replaced with the 1.6-litre unit but still with 4-speed transmission and no automatic available.
The "GL" was probably the most popular model. It featured the same silver-painted 13" steel wheels as the "L" but with satin chrome half-width centre caps (just covering the centre of the wheel), a digital clock on the top of the dashboard, fabric interior trim, grey body side mouldings, a rear windscreen wiper, grey beaver and tailgate panel garnishes and 50/50 split-fold rear seat. The stereo was an analogue-tuned AM/FM unit with a basic cassette player. Air fitness was optional as a dealer-fit accessory. Power was provided by a 1.6-litre engine, with 4-speed manual transmission (5-speed manual or 3-speed automatic was optional). Sedan and wagon came standard with 5-speed transmission.
The Ghia was the luxury model. It had black 14" steel wheels with full-size plastic wheel covers, power steering, body-coloured rear-view mirrors and bumpers, velour interior trim, tachometer, center console with Ghia emblem, lockable driver, glovebox's seat with lumbar support and height adjust, storage space drawer underneath the front passenger seat, full-size interior door trims, vanity mirror in passenger sunvisor, ticket holder in driver's sunvisor, believed interior hoodlining and sunvisors, rear headrests, additional warning lights in the instrument cluster, main locking with illuminated driver's door lock barrel, remote exterior mirrors, front door map pockets, front seatback pockets, additional reading lamps, chrome insert strips in the body part mouldings and bumpers, red tailgate garnish and orange beaver panel garnish. Air fitness and power windows were optional. The stereo was a digitally-tuned AM/FM unit, which featured a cassette player with Dolby enhanced sound. The 1.6-litre engine was fitted as standard, with EFI optional (standard on wagon), with either 5-speed manual or 3-speed automatic transmission (EFI automatic was 4-speed).
The TX3 was the Laser 'flagship'. It came standard with 14" satin-chrome alloy wheels, sports fabric interior trim, red insert strips in the human body part mouldings and bumpers, black tailgate and beaver panel garnishes, semi-bucket seats with adjustable seat height, back and lumbar support, auto fade interior lamps, and all other Ghia appointings. A/C and EFI was standard, and automatic transmission was not available. The TX3 also had a unique front side fascia with quad the parker and headlights lamps incorporated into the indicator lenses (L/GL/Ghia had the parkers inside the main headlight unit) and two-tone paint.
Halfway through KE production, Ford introduced two limited edition variations, known as "Redline", and "Livewire". The Redline was based on the GL hatch, while the Livewire was based on the GL sedan and hatch. The Redline featured the TX3's alloy wheels, two-tone paint and red inserts in the body-side mouldings and bumpers, air conditioning, and a tachometer. The Livewire featured yellow inserts in the body side mouldings and bumpers, air fitness, and a tachometer. Both models had 5-speed manual transmission (as opposed to the standard 4-speed) as standard, with 3-speed automated transmission as an option.
KE model range;
Laser L - Hatch or wagon
Laser GL - Hatch, sedan or wagon
Laser Ghia - Hatch, sedan or wagon
Laser TX3 Turbo
Laser TX3 Turbo 4WD
Mazda E3, 49 kW (66 hp) 1.3 L Carb 8V SOHC ('L' and 'GL' models)
Mazda E5T, 85 kW (114 hp) 1.5 L EFI 8V SOHC Turbo ('Cabriolet' Japan models)
Mazda B6, 53 kW (71 hp) 1.6 L Carb 8V SOHC ('GL' and 'GHIA' models)
Mazda B6, 62 kW (83 hp) 1.6 L EFI 8V SOHC (option on 'GHIA' standard and models on 'TX3' models)
Mazda B6T, 100 kW (130 hp) 1.6 L EFI 16V DOHC Turbo ('TX3 Turbo' and 'Turbo 4WD' models)
The Meteor title was discontined in Australia in 1987, with "Laser" now used for sedans and wagons as well as for hatchbacks. The title did survive in South Africa, where it was used from 1986 to 1995. In addition to the 1.3L carb, 1.6L carb and 1.6L EFi engines, South African models of the Laser and Meteor also gained the Mazda FE-DOHC EFi 16-valve engine with 146 hp (109 kW; 148 PS) and 136 lbÃ�Â·ft (184 NÃ�Â·m) from 1991 to 1993.
Mazda B3, 47 kW (63 hp) 1.3 L Carb 16V SOHC ('XL')
Mazda B6-2E, 64 kW (86 hp) 1.6 L Carb 16V SOHC ('L', 'XL', 'GL', 'Horizon', 'Livewire' and 'Indy' models)
Mazda BP SOHC aka B8, 76 kW (102 hp) 1.8 L F/I 16V SOHC ('GHIA', 'S' and 'GLi' models)
Mazda BP DOHC, 92 kW (123 hp) 1.8 L F/I 16V DOHC ('TX3 non-turbo' models)
Mazda BPT, 117 kW (157 hp) 1.8 L F/I 16V DOHC Turbo ('Turbo 4WD' models)
The Japanese built KJ Laser represented a major change in design; looking very different to the previous KH model. The new KJ Laser had been introduced in 1994 with engine, facelifts and variants driveline improvements continuing up until the last of the KJ series were released in 1998. The KJ Laser had been the first Laser manufactured wholly in Japan, following Ford Australia's decision to close their Homebush plant. Nevertheless, the KJ was unsatisfactory in sales numbers mainly because of the smaller Festiva and other cheaper Korean models to which many conservative buyers flocked.
Mazda B6, 80 16V, 1.6L, kW, DOHC ('LXi' models)
Mazda BP, 92 kW, 1.8L, 16V, DOHC (some 'LXi' and 'GLXi' models)
Ford Australia is the Australian subsidiary of Ford Motor Company which is an American company and was founded in Geelong, Victoria, in 1925 as an outpost of Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited. At that time, Ford Canada was a separate business from Ford USA. Henry Ford had granted the manufacturing rights to Ford in British Empire (subsequent Commonwealth) nations (excepting the UK) to Canadian investors.
Its very first products were Model Ts assembled from complete knock-down (CKD) kits provided by Ford of Canada. Nevertheless, it's best known in more recent times for having created the Falcon, originally a U.S. model introduced in Australia in 1960, but adapted to Australian requirements and road conditions. Since the release of the XA model in 1972, Falcons have been fully Australian designed. It additionally produces a four-wheel-drive model called the Territory.
Ford Australia is the only Australian car manufacturer which designs and manufactures its own unique high-volume engines.
In May 2013 Ford Australia announced it would stop making cars after 88 years due to soaring manufacturing costs and plummeting sales. The carmaker released its annual financial report, which showed a loss of A1m dollars (Ã�Â£90m/6m) after tax for the 2012 financial year. That follows a loss of A0m in 2011 and a total loss of A0m over the past five years. As a result 1,200 staff will lose their jobs.
The KN Laser was the last brand new shape of Laser to be introduced. Released in Australia in May 1999, the model range was almost completely identical to the Mazda 323 on which it was based, which was the first time since the KE Laser. In February 2001, the KN got a minor facelift and became the KQ Laser. The big news with the KQ Laser was the addition of a 2.0-litre 4-cylinder motor for the new top-spec "SR2", which was also the first sports-oriented Laser variant in almost five years, since the unpopular Laser Lynx had been discontinued in 1996. A brand new "SR" level of trim, which sat below SR2 had been also introduced at this time. The KQ can be distinguished from the previous KN, with a new grille with chrome moulding, new headlights, revised tail lights, different exterior colours, and slightly revised interiors. In March 2002, as a result of dropping product sales, Ford made one last attempt to restore the Laser's popularity to its former glory, by announcing minor upgrades to the SR2, and added three new exterior colours to the range, being "Goldrush", "Red Revenge", and "Electric Blue". Three engines were available, a 1.6-litre that was fitted to the LXi, a 1.8-litre which was fitted to the GLXi & SR, and a 2.0-litre that was exclusive to the SR2. Despite Laser having a good reputation with buyers in the marketplace, and many attempts from Ford to re-ignite interest in the model, it still were unsuccessful to sell in reasonable numbers. In September 2002, Ford decided to discontinue the Laser in Australia, replacing it with the European-sourced Focus.
Laser LXi (Sedan or hatch)
Laser GLXi (hatch or Sedan)
Laser XRI (Hatch only)nzs sr2 2.0l
Laser SR (Hatch only)
Laser SR2 (Hatch only)
Mazda 1.8 L FP-DE DOHC I4 91 kW (122 hp) and 163 NÃ�Â·m (120 ftÃ�Â·lbf)
Mazda 2.0 L FS, 97 kW (130 hp) and 183 NÃ�Â·m (135 ftÃ�Â·lbf)
Mazda 2.0 L FS-ZE (2001 Sport 20)
1.6 L ZM-DE 72 kW (97 hp) and 145 NÃ�Â·m (107 ftÃ�Â·lbf)
The Laser replaced the rear-wheel-drive Escort in Australia in 1981. It was available as a hatchback, in both 3 door and 5 door varieties, as well as a 4 home sedan which was badged as the Meteor. Ford Australia marketed them as separate vehicles, providing a worthy rival to Japanese models like the Toyota Corolla; the Meteor nameplate was discontinued in Australia when the KE sedan was launched in 1987, but survived in South Africa until 1995.
Local production of the Laser in Australia ceased in 1994 when Ford closed its plant at Homebush in Sydney, and imported the model from Japan. The Laser was finally replaced by the Focus in 2002.
A turbocharger, or turbo, is a turbine driven forced induction device used to allow more power to be created by an engine of a given size. A turbocharged engine can be more powerful and efficient than a naturally aspirated engine because the turbine forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, in to the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone.
Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers; these days the term "supercharger" is generally used to just mechanically driven forced induction devices. The key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that the latter is mechanically driven from the engine, often from a belt linked to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine that is driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Contrasted to a mechanically-driven turbochargers, supercharger are usually more effective but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine which has both supercharger and turbocharger.
In New Zealand, the Laser was sold as both sedan and hatchback, and was later assembled alongside the Mazda 323 at the Vehicle Assemblers of New Zealand (VANZ) plant in Wiri, Auckland in a joint venture between Ford New Zealand and Mazda. The KC/KE Laser wagon had been also put together locally, alongside its Mazda 323 equivalent, until 1996. When the plant closed in 1997, Ford dropped the Laser and introduced the Ford Escort hatchback and sedan, having already introduced the Escort wagon. It later reintroduced the Laser in 1999, and was not replaced by the Focus until 2003.