Does not include 2.5 litre turbocharged engine (Duratec-ST)
Covers everything you need to know, step by step procedures, hundreds of photographs and illustrations, routine maintenance, wiring diagrams, repairs and overhauls, and what tools to buy. Gregory's manuals are based on an actual vehicle stripdown and are researched and written by automotive engineers with vast experience.
The Ford Focus is a compact auto produced by the Ford Motor Company because 1998. Ford started sales of the Focus with Europe inside July 1998 plus inside North America throughout 1999 for the 2000 model year.
In Europe, South America, North America plus South Africa, the Focus changed the different versions of the Ford Escort plus Ford Laser available inside those markets. In Asia plus Australasia, it changed the Ford Laser. As of the initially half of 2012, the Focus surpassed the Toyota Corolla with become the planet s ideal marketing vehicle nameplate. The Focus has been considered among the 50 biggest vehicles of the previous fifty years by British magazine CAR.
Kinetic Design is the name provided with a fashion of car shape employed by Ford Motor Company for numerous of its passenger cars inside the late 2000s plus early 2010s.
Developed by at the shape studios of Ford of Europe inside Germany plus England, it changed New Edge, plus was initial shown inside 2005 with all the SAV concept. Kinetic Design or Kinetic Design ingredients have showcased found on the Ford Ka within the 2008 model onwards, the Ford Fiesta within the 2008 model onwards, the Ford Focus within the 2008 model onwards, the Ford C-MAX within the 2007 model onwards, the Ford Kuga, the Ford Mondeo within the 2007 model onwards, the Ford S-MAX as well as the Ford Galaxy within the 2006 model onwards.
Kinetic Design utilizes interesting surfacing, the shape code shows the theme of stamina inside motion. A normal feature of Kinetic Design is the big, lower trapeziodal grille; when most cars headlights have a stretched back look for them.
The Mk 2 Ford Focus was established at the Paris Motor Show about September 23, 2004 because a 3 plus five-door hatchback plus an property, though the new vehicle was previewed, inside 4-door saloon shape, because the Focus Concept developed by Ford Europe at the Beijing Motor Show inside mid-2004.
The Mk 2, codenamed C307, utilizes the Ford C1 platform that is shared with all the Volvo S40, V50 plus C70, Mazda3 plus Focus C-MAX. Ford calls this platform sharing programme "Global Shared Technologies".
The standard suspension shape, that provided much with the Mk 1 s achievement, has been carried over mostly unchanged from its predecessor that, and a 10% stiffer bodyshell, has the greater ride according with Ford. The same body designs because the Mk 1 Focus were available, though the saloon didn't appear till mid-2005.
The Focus Mk 2 is a lot greater plus considerably heavier than its predecessor with a 25 mm heighten inside wheelbase, 168 mm longer, 8 mm taller plus 22 mm wider. As a result the inside plus boot area have improved. New technologies include a KeyFree program, a solar-reflect windshield, adaptive front light, Bluetooth hands-free phones plus voice control for sound, phone plus climate control systems.
It equally qualities either a Durashift 6-speed guide, Durashift 4-speed automatic transmission, the all-new Durashift advanced guide transmission or only the standard guide.
Stylistically, the Mk 2 s styling qualities the same shape code found inside the Mondeo plus Fiesta. Although nonetheless recognisable because a Focus the hot auto utilizes styling qualities within the abandoned B-Proposal for the authentic Focus that not reached manufacturing.
The inside plus dashboard follows on within the Mk 2 Mondeo plus is designed from high standard plastics than before.The Focus Mk 2 was moreover integrated Silverton, South Africa for export with Australia plus New Zealand. But after release, Ford New Zealand surrendered its provide with meet Australia s excellent need, plus today receives cars within the German factory inside Saarlouis. In 2006 the Mk 2 produced its first inside the Americas with its release found on the Mexican marketplace because the 4-door saloon or the stylish 3-door inside ST trim. The Mk 2 Focus is today accessible alongside base versions of the Mk I model inside other markets internationally including Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia plus Venezuela. In Argentina, the Mk 1 Focus was built alongside the Mk 2 inside the Pacheco Factory till 2008, whenever the Mk 2 finally changed it.
In the U.S. plus Canada, the Mk 1 Focus was available inside a redesigned shape because either a saloon or coupe, the hatchbacks plus wagon having been dropped following the 2008 redesign. Sales of the coupe model have been just a tiny fraction of the past 3-door hatchback, despite increasing sales of the Focus saloon plus compact vehicles for the most part.
The International Standard ISO 3833-1977 defines a coup because having a closed body, generally with limited back amount, a fixed rooftop of that a part can be openable, at smallest 2 seats inside at smallest 1 row, 2 side doorways plus maybe the back starting, at smallest 2 side windows.
For utilize inside styling, the expression coupe pertains with a "close-coupled" car because the "couple distance" is the dimension "amongst the driver s cool joint whenever seated as well as the back axle." Therefore, a "close-coupled auto is "1 where the front seats are comparatively close with the back wheels, that naturally leaves small or no room for rear-seat guests."
Alternatively, a coup is frequently recognized from a two-door sedan by the shortage of the B pillar with help the roof. Sedans have an A pillar forward at the windscreen, a B pillar aft of the door, along with a C pillar defining the aftermost rooftop help at the back window. So with all side-windows down, a coup might appear windowless within the A with the C pillars. These fixed-roof models are described because a hardtop or pillarless coup. Though, with confuse elements even further, there are numerous hardtop/pillarless two- plus four-door sedans. Targa top, or simply T -top models are a variation found on the convertible shape, where the rooftop center section is removed, inside 1 or 2 sections, exiting the rest of the rooftop inside spot. Another variation found on the convertible or drop-head coup is the completely retractable hardtop. In this shape the vehicle has all blessings of fixed-head car nevertheless, at the touch of the switch, the whole rooftop lifts off, folds plus stows away inside the torso. Though retractables were tried years ago by Peugeot, inside Europe plus Ford, inside the US, with all the Fairlaine Skyliner, it is actually just inside the 21st century which there has been an explosion inside the recognition of the bodystyle.
The engine line up for the Mk 2 is a mixture of aged plus modern. The 1.4 L plus 1.6 L all aluminium Zetec-SE motors within the past generation Focus were seriously upgraded plus renamed Duratec, with all the addition of 1.6 L Duratec Ti-VCT engine with varying valve timing. For the South African marketplace, the 1.6L BZ inline-four engine was chosen inside their Mk2. For the 2009 facelift it was changed by the 1.8 Duratec.
The 1.8 L plus 2.0 L Zetec petrol machines of the authentic were changed with all the Duratec HE.
The Duratorq Diesel engine inside Tiger Duratorq 1.6 L 90 hp plus 110 hp editions, Lynx Duratorq 1.8L 115 hp diesel carried over within the past model as well as the diesel inside 2.0 L shape rounds off the range inside standard Focus guise.
1.4 L Duratec 80PS
1.6 L Duratec 100PS
1.6 L Duratec Ti-VCT 115PS
1.8 L Duratec HE 125PS
2.0 L Duratec HE 145PS
2.5 L Duratec ST turbo I5 225PS
2.5 L Duratec RS turbo I5 305PS
2.5 L Duratec RS 500 turbo I5 350PS
1.6 L Duratorq TDCi 90PS, 100PS & 109PS
1.8 L Duratorq TDCi 115PS
2.0 L Duratorq TDCi 110PS & 136PS
The principal trim degrees of the pre-facelift Focus Mk 2 inside the UK are indexed under. For alternative nations, the range is either a reduce variation of the list or it really is virtually completely different altogether
From September 2006, Ford revised the standard trim requirements somewhat, with permit for the introduction of further choices called X-Packs.
Vehicles is classified inside many techniques. As an example, a government will establish a car category program for determining a taxes amount. In the UK, the car is taxed based on the car s construction, engine, fat, kind of gas plus emissions, plus the cause for that it's chosen. Other jurisdictions can determine car taxes based on ecological principles, like the consumer pays principle. In another illustration, certain cities inside the United States inside the 1920s selected with exempt electric-powered cars considering officials believed those cars didn't result "substantial wear on the pavements."
Another standard for road cars of all kinds which is employed internationally, is ISO 3833-1977.
In an illustration from private enterprise, countless vehicle rental firms employ the ACRISS Car Classification Code with describe the size and style, sort plus equipment of cars with confirm which rental agents will match customer must accessible cars, irrespective of distance between your agent as well as the rental organization or the languages talked by either party. In the United States, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety utilizes a scheme it has developed which takes into account a mixture of both car size plus alternative car attributes like size plus wheelbase.
The initial commercial electronic gas injection program was Electrojector, developed by the Bendix Corporation plus was available from American Motors Corporation inside 1957. The Rambler Rebel, showcased AMC s fresh 327 cu inside engine. The Electrojector was a choice plus rated at 288 bhp. The EFI yielded peak torque 500 rpm lower than the similar carburetored engine The Rebel Owners Manual described the shape plus procedure of the brand-new program.. The expense of the EFI way was US5 plus it was accessible about 15 June 1957. Electrojector s teething difficulties meant just pre-production vehicles were thus equipped: therefore, few vehicles thus equipped were ever available plus none were prepared accessible with the public. The EFI program inside the Rambler ran fine inside warm weather, nevertheless suffered difficult beginning inside cooler temperatures.
Chrysler available Electrojector found on the 1958 Chrysler 300D, DeSoto Adventurer, Dodge D-500 plus Plymouth Fury, arguably the initially series-production vehicles loaded with an EFI program. It was jointly designed by Chrysler plus Bendix. The early electronic components were not equal with the rigors of underhood service, still, plus were too slow with maintain with all the demands of "found on the fly" engine control. Most of the 35 cars initially thus equipped were field-retrofitted with 4-barrel carburetors. The Electrojector patents were subsequently available with Bosch.
Bosch developed an electronic gas injection program, called D-Jetronic, that was initially utilized found on the VW 1600TL/E inside 1967. This became a speed/density program, utilizing engine speed plus intake manifold air density with calculate "air mass" flow rate and therefore gas needs. This program was adopted by VW, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, Citron, Saab, plus Volvo. Lucas certified the program for manufacturing with Jaguar.
Bosch superseded the D-Jetronic program with all the K-Jetronic plus L-Jetronic systems for 1974, though certain vehicles continued utilizing D-Jetronic for the following years. In 1970, the Isuzu 117 Coup was introduced with a Bosch-supplied D-Jetronic gas injected engine available just inside Japan.
Chevrolet Cosworth Vega engine showing Bendix electronic gas injection.
In Japan, the Toyota Celica employed electronic, multi-port gas injection inside the optional 18R-E engine inside January 1974. Nissan available electronic, multi-port gas injection inside 1975 with all the Bosch L-Jetronic program employed inside the Nissan L28E engine plus installed inside the Nissan Fairlady Z, Nissan Cedric, as well as the Nissan Gloria. Nissan moreover installed multi-point gas injection inside the Nissan Y44 V8 engine inside the Nissan President. Toyota shortly followed with all the same technologies inside 1978 found on the 4M-E engine installed inside the Toyota Crown, the Toyota Supra, as well as the Toyota Mark II. In the 1980s, the Isuzu Piazza, as well as the Mitsubishi Starion added gas injection because standard equipment, developed individually with both firms history of diesel driven motors. 1981 saw Mazda provide gas injection inside the Mazda Luce with all the Mazda FE engine, plus inside 1983, Subaru available gas injection inside the Subaru EA81 engine installed inside the Subaru Leone. Honda followed inside 1984 with their own program, called PGM-FI inside the Honda Accord, as well as the Honda Vigor utilizing the Honda ES3 engine.
The limited manufacturing Chevrolet Cosworth Vega was introduced inside March 1975 utilizing a Bendix EFI program with pulse-time manifold injection, 4 injector valves, an electronic control device, five independent sensors plus 2 gas pumps. The EFI program was developed with meet stringent emission control needs plus marketplace demands for a technologically advanced sensitive car. 5000 hand-built Cosworth Vega machines were yielded yet just 3,508 vehicles were available from 1976.
The Cadillac Seville was introduced inside 1975 with an EFI program prepared by Bendix plus modelled surprisingly carefully about Bosch s D-Jetronic. L-Jetronic initial appeared found on the 1974 Porsche 914, plus utilizes a mechanical airflow meter which produces a signal which is proportional with "air volume". This approach necessary extra sensors with measure the atmospheric stress plus temperature, with eventually calculate "air mass". L-Jetronic was commonly adopted about European vehicles of which period, along with a limited Japanese models a brief time later.
In 1980, Motorola introduced the initial electronic engine control device, the EEC-III. Its integrated control of engine functions is today the standard approach for gas injection systems. The Motorola development was installed inside Ford North American goods.
Automotive oxygen sensors, colloquially well-known as O2 sensors, create contemporary electronic gas injection plus emission control potential. They enable determine, inside real time, when the air--fuel ratio of the combustion engine is wealthy or lean. Because oxygen sensors are positioned inside the exhaust stream, they are doing not straight measure the air or the gas entering the engine yet whenever info from oxygen sensors is combined with info from different sources, it may be employed with indirectly determine the air-fuel ratio. Closed loop feedback-controlled gas injection varies the gas injector output according with real-time sensor information instead of running with a predetermined gas chart. Additionally with permitting electronic gas injection with function effectively, this emissions control technique may decrease the amounts of both unburnt gas plus oxides of nitrogen entering the ambiance. Unburnt gas is pollution inside the shape of air-borne hydrocarbons, whilst oxides of nitrogen are a outcome of combustion room temperatures exceeding 1,300 kelvin due with extra air inside the gas mixture plus lead with smog plus acid rainfall. Volvo was the initial car maker with employ this development inside the late 1970s, together with the three-way catalyst chosen inside the catalytic converter.
The sensor refuses to really measure oxygen focus, however, very the difference amongst the amount of oxygen inside the exhaust fuel as well as the amount of oxygen inside air. Rich mixture causes an oxygen need. This need causes a voltage with build up, due with transportation of oxygen ions from the sensor layer. Lean mixture causes low voltage, because there is an oxygen extra.
Modern spark-ignited combustion machines employ oxygen sensors plus catalytic converters inside purchase with lower exhaust emissions. Information about oxygen focus is delivered with the engine administration computer or engine control device, that changes the amount of gas injected into the engine with pay for extra air or extra gas. The ECU tries with keep, about average, a certain air--fuel ratio by interpreting the data it gains within the oxygen sensor. The primary objective is a compromise between energy, gas economy, plus emissions, plus inside many situations is accomplished by an air-fuel-ratio close with stoichiometric. For spark-ignition machines, the 3 kinds of emissions contemporary systems are worried with are: hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide plus NOx. Failure of these sensors, either by general aging, the utilization of leaded fuels, or gas contaminated with silicones or silicates, for illustration, may cause damage of a vehicle s catalytic converter plus pricey repairs.
Tampering with or changing the signal which the oxygen sensor sends with the engine computer is damaging with emissions control plus may even damage the car. When the engine is below low-load conditions, it is very working inside "closed-loop mode". This pertains with a suggestions loop involving the ECU as well as the oxygen sensor inside that the ECU changes the amount of gas plus expects to find a resulting change inside the reaction of the oxygen sensor. This loop forces the engine to work both somewhat lean plus somewhat wealthy about successive loops, because it tries with keep the largely stoichiometric ratio about average. If modifications result the engine with run reasonably lean, there is a slight heighten inside gas economy, occasionally at the cost of improved NOx emissions, much high exhaust fuel temperatures, plus occasionally a slight heighten inside force which may swiftly become misfires along with a drastic reduction of force, and also possible engine damage, at ultra-lean air-to-fuel ratios. If modifications result the engine with run wealthy, then there is a slight heighten inside energy with a point, however at the expense of reduced gas economy, plus an heighten inside unburned hydrocarbons inside the exhaust that causes overheating of the catalytic converter. Prolonged procedure at wealthy mixtures could result catastrophic failure of the catalytic converter. The ECU additionally controls the spark engine timing together with the gas injector pulse width, thus modifications that alter the engine to work either too lean or too wealthy will cause inefficient gas expenditure when gas is ignited too shortly or too late inside the combustion cycle.
Whenever an internal combustion engine is below significant weight, the output of the oxygen sensor is ignored, as well as the ECU automatically enriches the mixture with safeguard the engine, because misfires below weight are more probably with result damage. This really is called an engine running inside open-loop mode . Any changes inside the sensor output is ignored inside this state. In numerous vehicles, inputs within the air flow meter are furthermore ignored, because they would otherwise lower engine performance due with the mixture being too wealthy or too lean, plus strengthen the danger of engine damage due with detonation when the mixture is too lean.
The Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor is regarded as the sensors employed inside an internal combustion engine s electronic control program.
Engines which employ a MAP sensor are usually gas injected. The manifold absolute stress sensor offers instant manifold stress info with the engine s electronic control device. The information is selected with calculate air density plus determine the engine s air mass flow rate, which determines the needed gas metering for maximum combustion plus influence the advance or retard of ignition timing. A fuel-injected engine can alternately employ a mass airflow sensor with identify the consumption airflow. A typical configuration uses 1 or the different, however, rarely both.
MaP sensor information is converted with air mass information utilizing the speed-density system. Engine speed plus air temperature are moreover mandatory with complete the speed-density calculation. The MaP sensor will equally be employed inside OBD II applications with test the EGR valve for functionality, an application typical inside OBD II prepared General Motors machines.
A timing belt, timing chain or cam belt is a element of a internal combustion engine which synchronizes the rotation of the crankshaft as well as the camshaft thus which the engine s valves open plus close at the right instances throughout every cylinder s intake plus exhaust strokes. In an interference engine the timing belt or chain is moreover important with preventing the piston from striking the valves. A timing belt is a belt which generally qualities teeth found on the inside surface, when a timing chain is a roller chain.
Many contemporary creation vehicle motors use the timing belt or chain with synchronize crankshaft plus camshaft rotation; certain motors rather use gears with straight drive the camshafts. The utilize of the timing belt or chain rather of direct gear drive allows engine designers with spot the camshaft further within the crankshaft, plus inside machines with numerous camshafts a timing belt or chain additionally allows the camshafts with be located further from every alternative. Timing stores were usual about manufacturing vehicles from the 1970s plus 1980s, whenever timing belts became the norm, however, timing stores have watched a resurgence inside latest years. Timing stores are more durable than timing belts -- though neither is because durable because direct gear drive -- but, timing belts are lighter, cheaper, plus work more quietly.
In the internal combustion engine application the timing belt or chain links the crankshaft with the camshaft, which control the starting plus closing of the engine s valves. A four-stroke engine demands which the valves open plus close when each additional revolution of the crankshaft. The timing belt does this. It has teeth with turn the camshaft synchronised with all the crankshaft, plus is particularly tailored for a specific engine. In several engine designs the timing belt will furthermore be employed with drive additional engine components including water pump plus oil pump.
Gear or chain systems are moreover utilized with connect the crankshaft with the camshaft at the correct timing. But, gears plus shafts constrain the relative place of the crankshaft plus camshafts. Even where the crankshaft plus camshaft are rather close together, because inside pushrod machines, many engine designers utilize a brief chain drive instead of a direct gear drive. This really is considering gear forces experience frequent torque reversal because the cam profiles "kick back" from the drive within the crank, leading with excessive sound plus wear. Fibre gears, with more resilience, are preferred with steel gears where direct drive has with be utilized.
A belt or chain enables more flexibility inside the relative places of the crankshaft plus camshafts.
While stores plus gears can be more durable, rubber composite belts are quieter inside their surgery, are cheaper plus better, by dint of being lighter, whenever compared with a gear or chain program. Also, timing belts never need lubrication, that is imperative with a timing chain or gears. A timing belt is a certain application of the synchronous belt employed with transfer rotational energy synchronously.
Timing belts are usually covered by metal or polymer timing belt covers that need treatment for inspection or substitution. Engine producers suggest substitution at certain intervals. The producer might equally suggest the substitution of additional components, including water pump, whenever the timing belt is changed considering the extra expense with substitute water pump is negligible compared with the expense of accessing the timing belt. In an interference engine, or 1 whose valves extend into the path of the piston, failure of the timing belt invariably results inside costly plus, inside certain situations, irreparable engine damage, because several valves is held open whenever they cannot be and therefore is struck by the pistons.
Indicators which the timing chain can have to be changed include a rattling sound within the front of the engine.
Ford Focus LS and LT series Service and Repair Manual 2005-2009 Gregorys 2006 2007 2008