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The only book currently available that comprehensively deals with the realities of restoring a VW Bay Window Bus. With over 1500 mainly colour photos, it guides the reader clearly through body and chassis repairs, paint work, interior re-trimming and most common mechanical problems. The skills, techniques and even the tools needed to complete these tasks are explained in jargon free language, to ensure that even those enthusiasts with no previous restoration experience will feel confident in sorting out their Bus. An indispensable and unique guide for lovers of these fast appreciating classics. Integracar attempts to supply a diverse spectrum of maintenance guides. Although repair manuals can sometimes be produced for a range of countries and the cars put together for those countries. Hence not all service manuals may be best for your selected motor vehicle. If you have concerns whether or not a specific service manual is good for your vehicle please e-mail us here
How to Restore Volkswagen (bay Window) Bus by Mark Paxton
The Volkswagen Type 2, recognized officially because the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, because the Bus or Camper, is a panel van introduced inside 1950 by the German automaker Volkswagen because its 2nd vehicle model. After - plus initially deriving from Volkswagen's initially model, the Type 1 - it was provided the factory designation Type 2.
As among the forerunners of the contemporary cargo plus passenger vans, the Type 2 gave rise with forward control competitors inside the United States inside the 1960s, including the Ford Econoline, the Dodge A100, as well as the Chevrolet Corvair 95 Corvan, the latter adopting the Type 2's rear-engine configuration. European competition included the 1960s FF design Renault Estafette as well as the FR design Ford Transit.
Like the Beetle, the van has received many nicknames worldwide, including the "microbus", "minibus", plus, due to its recognition throughout the counterculture movement of the 1960s, "Hippie van".
Brazil contained the last factory inside the globe which yielded the T2. Production inside Brazil ceased about December 31, 2013, due with the introduction of more stringent protection laws inside the nation. This marks the finish of a era with all the rear-engine Volkswagens produced, that initially originated inside 1935 with their Type 1 prototypes.
The concept for the Type 2 is credited with Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. Pon visited Wolfsburg inside 1946, intending with buy Type 1s for import with the Netherlands, where he saw an improvised parts-mover plus realized anything better was potential utilizing the stock Type 1 pan. He initially sketched the van inside a doodle dated April 23, 1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg plus placing the driver at the front. Production might need to wait, still, because the factory was at ability producing the Type 1.
Whenever capability freed up, a prototype acknowledged internally because the Type 29 was yielded inside a brief 3 months. The stock Type 1 pan proven with be too weak thus the prototype chosen a ladder chassis with device body construction. Coincidentally the wheelbase was the same because the Type 1's. Engineers reused the reduction gear within the Type 81, allowing the 1.5 lot van with utilize a 25 hp flat 4 engine.
Although the aerodynamics of the initial prototypes were bad, technicians utilized the wind tunnel at the Technical University of Braunschweig with optimize the shape. Easy changes like splitting the windshield plus roofline into a "vee" assisted the manufacturing Type 2 achieve Cd=0.44, exceeding the Type 1's Cd=0.48. Volkswagen's fresh chief executive officer Heinz Nordhoff approved the van for manufacturing about 19 May 1949 as well as the initial manufacturing model, today designated Type 2, rolled off the assembly line with debut 12 November. Just 2 models were offered: the Kombi, as well as the Commercial. The Microbus was added inside May 1950, joined by the Deluxe Microbus inside June 1951. In all 9,541 Type 2s were yielded inside their initial year of manufacturing.
An ambulance model was added inside December 1951 that repositioned the gas tank inside front of the transaxle, place the spare tire behind the front seat, plus added a "tailgate"-style back door. These qualities became standard found on the Type 2 from 1955 with 1967. 11,805 Type 2s were integrated the 1951 model year. These were joined with a single-cab pickup inside August 1952, plus it changed the smallest of the Type 2s till all were seriously modified inside 1968.
Unlike alternative back engine Volkswagens, that evolved consistently over time however not saw the introduction of all-new models, the Transporter not just evolved, yet was completely revised periodically with variations retrospectively called versions "T1" with "T5". However just decades T1 with T3 is watched because straight connected with the Beetle.
The Type 2, together with the 1947 CitroÃ«n H Van, are amidst the initial 'forward control' vans inside that the driver was located above the front roadwheels. They began a trend inside Europe, where the 1952 GM Bedford CA, 1958 RAF-977, 1959 Renault Estafette, 1960 BMC Morris J4, plus 1960 Commer FC furthermore chosen the idea. In the United States, the Corvair-based Chevrolet Corvan cargo van plus Greenbrier passenger van went thus far because with copy the Type 2's rear-engine design, utilizing the Corvair's horizontally opposed, air-cooled engine for energy. Except for the Greenbrier plus different 1950sâ70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 stayed distinctive inside being rear-engined. This had been a drawback for the early "barndoor" Panel Vans, that couldn't conveniently be loaded within the back considering the engine cover intruded about inside area, yet usually advantageous inside traction plus inside sound.
The Volkswagen Samba, inside the United States sometimes known because Sunroof Deluxe, was the many luxurious variation of the Volkswagen Transporter T1. Volkswagen began producing Samba's inside 1951. In the sixties this adaptation became favored because a hippie bus.
Originally Volkswagen Vans were categorized based on the amount of windows they had. This model had 23 windows including 8 panoramic windows inside the roof. To distinguish it within the regular 23 window Volkswagen van the name Samba was coined.
Instead of the sliding door at the side the Samba had 2 pivot doorways. Additionally the Samba had a cloth sunroof. At that time Volkswagen advertised with all the idea of utilizing the Samba with create tourist trips by the Alps.
Samba's were standard painted inside 2 hues. Usually, the upper piece was colored white. The 2 colored sections were split with a decorative strip. Further the bus had a thus called "hat": at the front of the van the rooftop was simply a little longer than the auto itself with block the sunlight for the driver. The windows had chrome tables as well as the van had a more comprehensive dashboard than the usual T1.
Whenever Volkswagen began producing the successor of the T1 the firm furthermore stopped producing the Samba's thus there are no Samba's inside later versions of the Volkswagen Transporter.
In late 1967, the next generation of the Volkswagen Type 2 was introduced. It was integrated Germany till 1979. In Mexico, the Volkswagen Kombi plus Panel were yielded from 1970 with 1994. Models before 1971 are frequently called the T2a, when models following 1972 are called the T2b.
1978 Volkswagen Transporter Pickup
1973â1980 Volkswagen Kombi van
T2 chosen because an ambulance inside Brazil
This second-generation Type 2 lost its distinctive split front windshield, plus was somewhat heavier plus considerably heavier than its predecessor. Its normal nicknames are Breadloaf plus Bay-window, or Loaf plus Bay for brief. At 1.6 L plus 35 kW DIN, the engine was furthermore somewhat heavier. The modern model additionally did away with all the swing axle back suspension plus transfer boxes earlier utilized with raise ride height. Instead, half-shaft axles fitted with continual velocity joints raised ride height without the wild changes inside camber of the Beetle-based swing axle suspension. The up-to-date Bus transaxle is normally popular by off-road racers utilizing air-cooled Volkswagen components.
The T2b was introduced through slow change over 3 years. The initially models showcased rounded bumpers incorporating a step for utilize whenever the door was open, front doorways which opened with 90Â° within the body, no lip found on the front guards, specific engine hatches, plus crescent air intakes inside the D-pillars. The 1971 Type 2 showcased a modern, 1.6 L engine with double consumption ports about every cylinder head plus was DIN-rated at 37 kW. An significant change came with all the introduction of front disk brakes plus fresh roadwheels with brake ventilation holes plus flatter hubcaps. Up till 1972, front indicators are set low found on the nose instead of excellent about either side of the fresh air grille â providing rise with their being nicknamed "Lower Lights". 1972's many prominent change had been a bigger engine compartment to match the heavier 1.7- with 2.0-litre machines within the Volkswagen Type 4, along with a redesigned back end that eliminated the removable back apron plus introduced the bigger late tail lights. The air inlets were furthermore enlarged to support the improved cooling air demands of the heavier machines.
In 1971 the 1600cc Type 1 engine because employed inside the Beetle, was supplemented with all the 1700cc Type 4 engine â because it was initially crafted for the Type 4 models. European vans kept the possibility of upright enthusiast Type 1 1600 engine nevertheless the 1700 Type 4 became standard for US spec models.
Pre-facelift plus facelifted Volkswagen Kombi vans
In the Type 2, the Type 4 engine was an alternative for the 1972 model year forward. This engine was standard inside models destined for the US plus Canada. Just with all the Type 4 engine did an automatic transmission become accessible for the first-time inside the 1973 model year. Both motors displaced 1.7 L, DIN-rated at 49 kW with all the guide transmission plus 46 kW with all the automatic. The Type 4 engine was enlarged with 1.8 L plus 50 kW DIN for the 1974 model year plus again with 2.0 L plus 52 kW DIN for the 1976 model year. The 1978 2.0 L today showcased hydraulic valve lifters, eliminating the requirement with periodically change the valve clearances because about earlier models. The 1975 plus later U.S. model years received Bosch L-Jetronic electronic gas injection because standard equipment; 1978 was the initial year for electronic ignition, using the hall impact sensor plus digital controller, eliminating maintenance-requiring contact-breaker points. As with all Transporter motors, the focus inside development wasn't about force, however, about low-end torque. The Type 4 motors were considerably more robust plus durable than the Type 1 machines, especially inside Transporter service.
In 1972, for the 1973 model year, outdoor revisions included relocated front turn indicators, squared off plus set high inside the valance, above the headlights. Additionally, square-profiled bumpers, that became standard till the finish of the T2 inside 1979, were introduced inside 1973. Crash protection improved with this change due to a compressible structure behind the front bumper. This meant which the T2b was capable of meeting US protection practices for passenger vehicles of the time, though not necessary of vans. The "VW" emblem found on the front valance became somewhat small.
Later model changes were basically mechanical. By 1974, the T2 had gained its final form. Really late inside the T2's shape lifetime, throughout the late 1970s, the initially prototypes of Type 2 vans with four-wheel drive were built plus tested.
A swing axle is a easy kind of independent suspension tailored plus patented by Edmund Rumpler inside 1903. This had been a revolutionary innovation inside the automotive industry, permitting wheels with respond with irregularities of road surfaces independently, plus allow the car with keep a solid road carrying. The first automotive application was the Rumpler Tropfenwagen, the Standard Superior as well as the Volkswagen Beetle.
Many later car back swing axles have universal joints connecting the driveshafts with the differential, that is connected with the chassis. They never have universal joints at the wheels: the wheels are constantly perpendicular with the driveshafts. Swing axle suspensions traditionally chosen leaf springs plus shock absorbers. It was moreover utilized inside early aircraft, including the Sopwith plus Fokker, normally with rubber bungee plus no damping.
The T2c, that has a somewhat raised rooftop â by regarding 10 cm â inside the early 1990s, is made for the South American plus Central American markets. It is imported into additional nations, including the UK.
Because creation of the authentic Beetle was halted inside late 2003 because a 2004 model, the T2 stayed truly the only Volkswagen model with all the conventional air-cooled, rear-mounted boxer engine till the Brazilian model changed with a water-cooled engine about 23 December 2005. There had been a 1.6 L 50 hp water-cooled diesel engined variation of the T2, that was produced from 1981 with 1985 inside Brazil. This adaptation was really affordable â values from 15 km/l with 18 km/l are reported â however it suffered from low performance plus an insufficiently capable cooling program, that led with brief engine lifetime.
The end of the Volkswagen air-cooled engine about a worldwide basis was marked with a Special Edition Kombi. An exclusive Silver paint job, plus limited edition emblems were used with just 210 units inside late 2005, plus were available because 2006 models.
An aircooled along with a watercooled VW Kombi, created inside Brazil. Model years 2005 plus 2006.
More onerous emissions regulations introduced by the Brazilian government for 2006 forced a shift with water-cooled machines. The fresh "Flex Fuel" water-cooled engine can run about petrol in addition to alcohol. Borrowed within the Volkswagen Fox, the engine is a rear-mounted EA-111 1.4 L 8v Total Flex 1,390 cc, 58 kW about petrol, plus 60 kW whenever run about ethanol, plus 124 NÂ·m torque. This variation has been quite effective, inspite of the minor changes prepared with the total T2-bodied car. It nonetheless involves the four-speed transmission, yet with a brand-new final drive ratio it may cruise at 120 km/h at 4,100 rpm. Top speed is 130 km/h. 0 with 100 km/h is attained inside 22.7 seconds. Improvements were produced with 6.6% greater gas economy, plus almost 2 decibel less sound.
The Volkswagen Type T2 is undoubtedly the greatest model run inside Brazil, having been introduced inside September 1950 because the Volkswagen "Kombi", a name it has kept throughout manufacturing. The fierce competition from European front-wheel drive new generation vans nonetheless cannot match the Kombi's unparalleled cost-benefit equation. Just yielded inside 2 versions, bus or panel van, it provides just 1 factory option: the back window defog. As of June 2009, the T2 is made at the Volkswagen Group's SÃ£o Bernardo do Campo plant at a rate of 97 daily.
The creation of the Brazilian Volkswagen Kombi ends inside 2013 with a creation run of 600 Last Edition cars. The phaseout of the T2c marks the finish of a era that lasted because 1945 (whenever began the next generation of Volkswagen Type-1 - it is the final creation of metal-made bumper vehicles following 68 years. A short film called "Kombi's last wishes" was prepared by VW Brazil.